Journal Articles

  • Mobility-Controlled Performance of Thick Solar Cells Based on Fluorinated Copolymers
    [Oct 2014]

    Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/ja5067724
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • N-Tosyl-3-Azacyclohexyne. Synthesis and Chemistry of a Strained Cyclic Ynamide
    [Oct 2014]

    Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/ja509055r
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Low Overpotential in Vacancy-Rich Ultrathin CoSe2 Nanosheets for Water Oxidation
    [Oct 2014]

    Journal of the American Chemical SocietyDOI: 10.1021/ja5085157
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture
    [Oct 2014]

    Nature -

    Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture

    Nature 517, 7534 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature13809

    Authors: Cameron M. Pittelkow, Xinqiang Liang, Bruce A. Linquist, Kees Jan van Groenigen, Juhwan Lee, Mark E. Lundy, Natasja van Gestel, Johan Six, Rodney T. Venterea & Chris van Kessel

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the sustainable intensification of agriculture is more limited than often assumed.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile
    [Oct 2014]

    Nature -

    Precision microbiome reconstitution restores bile acid mediated resistance to Clostridium difficile

    Nature 517, 7533 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature13828

    Authors: Charlie G. Buffie, Vanni Bucci, Richard R. Stein, Peter T. McKenney, Lilan Ling, Asia Gobourne, Daniel No, Hui Liu, Melissa Kinnebrew, Agnes Viale, Eric Littmann, Marcel R. M. van den Brink, Robert R. Jenq, Ying Taur, Chris Sander, Justin R. Cross, Nora C. Toussaint, Joao B. Xavier & Eric G. Pamer

    The gastrointestinal tracts of mammals are colonized by hundreds of microbial species that contribute to health, including colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Many antibiotics destroy intestinal microbial communities and increase susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. Among these, Clostridium difficile, a major cause of antibiotic-induced diarrhoea, greatly increases morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Which intestinal bacteria provide resistance to C. difficile infection and their in vivo inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. Here we correlate loss of specific bacterial taxa with development of infection, by treating mice with different antibiotics that result in distinct microbiota changes and lead to varied susceptibility to C. difficile. Mathematical modelling augmented by analyses of the microbiota of hospitalized patients identifies resistance-associated bacteria common to mice and humans. Using these platforms, we determine that Clostridium scindens, a bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating intestinal bacterium, is associated with resistance to C. difficile infection and, upon administration, enhances resistance to infection in a secondary bile acid dependent fashion. Using a workflow involving mouse models, clinical studies, metagenomic analyses, and mathematical modelling, we identify a probiotic candidate that corrects a clinically relevant microbiome deficiency. These findings have implications for the rational design of targeted antimicrobials as well as microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics for individuals at risk of C. difficile infection.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Structure and insights into the function of a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel
    [Oct 2014]

    Nature -

    Structure and insights into the function of a Ca2+-activated Cl− channel

    Nature 516, 7530 (2014). doi:10.1038/nature13913

    Authors: Veronica Kane Dickson, Leanne Pedi & Stephen B. Long

    Bestrophin calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) regulate the flow of chloride and other monovalent anions across cellular membranes in response to intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels. Mutations in bestrophin 1 (BEST1) cause certain eye diseases. Here we present X-ray structures of chicken BEST1–Fab complexes, at

    Categories: Journal Articles
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