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Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
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Gene editing: Govern ability expectations

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Gene editing: Govern ability expectations

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527446b

Author: Gregor Wolbring

From a disability-rights viewpoint, problems that have dogged the debate on human genetic modification (see go.nature.com/6wb45k) also pervade your curtain-raiser to the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine conference (see D. J. H.Mathewset al. Nature527, 159–

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Gene editing: Survey invites opinions

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Gene editing: Survey invites opinions

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527446c

Authors: Silvia Camporesi & Lara Marks

As the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine summit on the regulation of CRISPR–Cas9 gene-editing tools gets under way, we invite readers to contribute their opinions about this technology and its use to a survey at go.nature.com/eyowaf.Public engagement in decisions about

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Climate change also creates expatriates

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Climate change also creates expatriates

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527446d

Author: Ralf Buckley

I visited the island of Tuvalu in the Pacific Ocean three decades ago as the environmental assessor for an aid-funded engineering consultancy. Pollution of the freshwater lens and scavenging of protective shoreline coral rubble for construction were problems even then. As you note (see Nature

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Crowdfunding not fit for clinical trials

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Crowdfunding not fit for clinical trials

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527446e

Author: Phaik Yeong Cheah

Crowdfunding can raise money quickly and with minimal bureaucracy. But it should not be considered as a way to finance clinical trials because of potential ethical implications.One problem is that funding recipients are not accountable to the public because crowdfunding is unregulated. Another is

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Lessons from EPA on tracking pollutants

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Lessons from EPA on tracking pollutants

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527446f

Authors: Bo Zhang & Wayne S. Davis

In our opinion, China could learn from the success of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in providing open-access environmental information to the public. This would enhance the credibility of government decisions.The EPA's Toxics Release Inventory programme, in partnership with state agencies, collects data

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Mental health: The mindful way

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Mental health: The mindful way

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nj7579-553a

Author: Sabine Louët

The art of mindfulness offers benefits not only for scientists' mental health, but also for their work performance.

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Turning point: Jason Lunden

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Turning point: Jason Lunden

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nj7579-554a

Author: Virginia Gewin

A researcher who studies autism-like behaviour in mice takes inspiration from his own condition.

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Claimed

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Claimed

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527556a

Author: S. J. Rosenstein

First contact.

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Correction

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Correction

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/527442a

The Comment article 'Einstein was no lone genius' (M.Janssen and J.RennNature527, 298–300; 2015 ) wrongly stated the dates during which Albert Einstein studied at the Swiss Federal Polytechnical School in Zurich. He was there

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Imaging techniques: Super-resolution ultrasound

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Imaging techniques: Super-resolution ultrasound

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527451a

Authors: Ben Cox & Paul Beard

By infusing blood vessels with gas-filled microbubbles and using rapid ultrasound imaging to detect the bubbles, super-resolution imaging of an entire vessel system has been achieved in a rat brain. See Letter p.499

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Ebola: Hidden reservoirs

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Ebola: Hidden reservoirs

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527453a

Authors: Jonathan L. Heeney

West Africa's Ebola epidemic continues to reveal surprises. Although the animal species that originally passed the virus to people remains a mystery, a virus reservoir and persistent disease have been identified in some human survivors.

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50 & 100 Years Ago

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

50 & 100 Years Ago

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527455b

50 Years AgoThe use of rubber gloves during surgical operations became general about 1900 ... The object of an investigation was to obtain an estimation of how frequently wound infection originates from bacteria on the hands of operating staff ... Examination of the wounds

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Planetary science: The Moon's tilt for gold

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Planetary science: The Moon's tilt for gold

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527455a

Authors: Robin Canup

The Moon's current orbit is at odds with theories predicting that its early orbit was in Earth's equatorial plane. Simulations now suggest that its orbit was tilted by gravitational interactions with a few large bodies. See Letter p.492

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Blindness: Assassins of eyesight

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Blindness: Assassins of eyesight

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527456a

Authors: Andrew D. Huberman & Rana N. El-Danaf

A molecular cascade involving the transcription factor SIX6 and its target gene p16INK4a causes the death of neurons that link the eye to the brain. This discovery deepens our understanding of a common form of blindness, glaucoma.

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Correction

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Correction

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/527457a

The News & Views article 'Rehabilitation: Boost for movement' by Randolph J. Nudo (Nature527, 314–315; 2015) omitted to mention that the author has declared competing financial interests. Details are available in the online version of the article.

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Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature16137

Authors: Kaveh Pahlevan & Alessandro Morbidelli

The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value—a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075–0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth–Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth–Moon system.

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Type-II Weyl semimetals

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Type-II Weyl semimetals

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15768

Authors: Alexey A. Soluyanov, Dominik Gresch, Zhijun Wang, QuanSheng Wu, Matthias Troyer, Xi Dai & B. Andrei Bernevig

Fermions—elementary particles such as electrons—are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals—materials hosting Weyl fermions—were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

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Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy for deep super-resolution vascular imaging

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy for deep super-resolution vascular imaging

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature16066

Authors: Claudia Errico, Juliette Pierre, Sophie Pezet, Yann Desailly, Zsolt Lenkei, Olivier Couture & Mickael Tanter

Non-invasive imaging deep into organs at microscopic scales remains an open quest in biomedical imaging. Although optical microscopy is still limited to surface imaging owing to optical wave diffusion and fast decorrelation in tissue, revolutionary approaches such as fluorescence photo-activated localization microscopy led to a striking increase in resolution by more than an order of magnitude in the last decade. In contrast with optics, ultrasonic waves propagate deep into organs without losing their coherence and are much less affected by in vivo decorrelation processes. However, their resolution is impeded by the fundamental limits of diffraction, which impose a long-standing trade-off between resolution and penetration. This limits clinical and preclinical ultrasound imaging to a sub-millimetre scale. Here we demonstrate in vivo that ultrasound imaging at ultrafast frame rates (more than 500 frames per second) provides an analogue to optical localization microscopy by capturing the transient signal decorrelation of contrast agents—inert gas microbubbles. Ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy allowed both non-invasive sub-wavelength structural imaging and haemodynamic quantification of rodent cerebral microvessels (less than ten micrometres in diameter) more than ten millimetres below the tissue surface, leading to transcranial whole-brain imaging within short acquisition times (tens of seconds). After intravenous injection, single echoes from individual microbubbles were detected through ultrafast imaging. Their localization, not limited by diffraction, was accumulated over 75,000 images, yielding 1,000,000 events per coronal plane and statistically independent pixels of ten micrometres in size. Precise temporal tracking of microbubble positions allowed us to extract accurately in-plane velocities of the blood flow with a large dynamic range (from one millimetre per second to several centimetres per second). These results pave the way for deep non-invasive microscopy in animals and humans using ultrasound. We anticipate that ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy may become an invaluable tool for the fundamental understanding and diagnostics of various disease processes that modify the microvascular blood flow, such as cancer, stroke and arteriosclerosis.

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Correction

Wed, 11/25/2015 - 00:00

Correction

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/527551a

The Technology Feature 'Connectomes make the map' (Nature526, 147–149; 2015) misnamed the MultiSEM model and gave the wrong citation in reference 3. MultiSEM 505 should have been Zeiss MultiSEM, and ref. 3 should have referred to Zingg,

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Drugs on demand

Tue, 11/24/2015 - 00:00

Drugs on demand

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/527410b

Controversy in Brazil over access to a purported cancer cure could set a harmful precedent.

Categories: Journal Articles