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Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
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Allosteric ligands for the pharmacologically dark receptors GPR68 and GPR65

Mon, 11/09/2015 - 00:00

Allosteric ligands for the pharmacologically dark receptors GPR68 and GPR65

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15699

Authors: Xi-Ping Huang, Joel Karpiak, Wesley K. Kroeze, Hu Zhu, Xin Chen, Sheryl S. Moy, Kara A. Saddoris, Viktoriya D. Nikolova, Martilias S. Farrell, Sheng Wang, Thomas J. Mangano, Deepak A. Deshpande, Alice Jiang, Raymond B. Penn, Jian Jin, Beverly H. Koller, Terry Kenakin, Brian K. Shoichet & Bryan L. Roth

At least 120 non-olfactory G-protein-coupled receptors in the human genome are ‘orphans’ for which endogenous ligands are unknown, and many have no selective ligands, hindering the determination of their biological functions and clinical relevance. Among these is GPR68, a proton receptor that lacks small molecule

Categories: Journal Articles

Extra adsorption and adsorbate superlattice formation in metal-organic frameworks

Mon, 11/09/2015 - 00:00

Extra adsorption and adsorbate superlattice formation in metal-organic frameworks

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15734

Authors: Hae Sung Cho, Hexiang Deng, Keiichi Miyasaka, Zhiyue Dong, Minhyung Cho, Alexander V. Neimark, Jeung Ku Kang, Omar M. Yaghi & Osamu Terasaki

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have a high internal surface area and widely tunable composition, which make them useful for applications involving adsorption, such as hydrogen, methane or carbon dioxide storage. The selectivity and uptake capacity of the adsorption process are determined by interactions involving the adsorbates and their porous host materials. But, although the interactions of adsorbate molecules with the internal MOF surface and also amongst themselves within individual pores have been extensively studied, adsorbate–adsorbate interactions across pore walls have not been explored. Here we show that local strain in the MOF, induced by pore filling, can give rise to collective and long-range adsorbate–adsorbate interactions and the formation of adsorbate superlattices that extend beyond an original MOF unit cell. Specifically, we use in situ small-angle X-ray scattering to track and map the distribution and ordering of adsorbate molecules in five members of the mesoporous MOF-74 series along entire adsorption–desorption isotherms. We find in all cases that the capillary condensation that fills the pores gives rise to the formation of ‘extra adsorption domains’—that is, domains spanning several neighbouring pores, which have a higher adsorbate density than non-domain pores. In the case of one MOF, IRMOF-74-V-hex, these domains form a superlattice structure that is difficult to reconcile with the prevailing view of pore-filling as a stochastic process. The visualization of the adsorption process provided by our data, with clear evidence for initial adsorbate aggregation in distinct domains and ordering before an even distribution is finally reached, should help to improve our understanding of this process and may thereby improve our ability to exploit it practically.

Categories: Journal Articles

The week in science: 23–29 October 2015

Mon, 11/02/2015 - 15:42

The week in science: 23–29 October 2015

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/526614a

Martian landing-site selected; telescope shuttered in Hawaii; and Hurricane Patricia pounds Mexico.

Categories: Journal Articles

Microbiology: Create a global microbiome effort

Mon, 11/02/2015 - 15:42

Microbiology: Create a global microbiome effort

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526631a

Authors: Nicole Dubilier, Margaret McFall-Ngai & Liping Zhao

Understanding how microbes affect health and the biosphere requires an international initiative, argue Nicole Dubilier, Margaret McFall-Ngai and Liping Zhao.

Categories: Journal Articles

Institutions: Revive universities of the Muslim world

Mon, 11/02/2015 - 15:42

Institutions: Revive universities of the Muslim world

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526634a

Authors: Nidhal Guessoum & Athar Osama

To boost science, higher-education institutes must give students a broad education and become meritocratic, say Nidhal Guessoum and Athar Osama.

Categories: Journal Articles

Endoperoxide formation by an α-ketoglutarate-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron enzyme

Mon, 11/02/2015 - 00:00

Endoperoxide formation by an α-ketoglutarate-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron enzyme

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15519

Authors: Wupeng Yan, Heng Song, Fuhang Song, Yisong Guo, Cheng-Hsuan Wu, Ampon Sae Her, Yi Pu, Shu Wang, Nathchar Naowarojna, Andrew Weitz, Michael P. Hendrich, Catherine E. Costello, Lixin Zhang, Pinghua Liu & Yan Jessie Zhang

Many peroxy-containing secondary metabolites have been isolated and shown to provide beneficial effects to human health. Yet, the mechanisms of most endoperoxide biosyntheses are not well understood. Although endoperoxides have been suggested as key reaction intermediates in several cases, the only well-characterized endoperoxide biosynthetic enzyme is prostaglandin H synthase, a haem-containing enzyme. Fumitremorgin B endoperoxidase (FtmOx1) from Aspergillus fumigatus is the first reported α-ketoglutarate-dependent mononuclear non-haem iron enzyme that can catalyse an endoperoxide formation reaction. To elucidate the mechanistic details for this unique chemical transformation, we report the X-ray crystal structures of FtmOx1 and the binary complexes it forms with either the co-substrate (α-ketoglutarate) or the substrate (fumitremorgin B). Uniquely, after α-ketoglutarate has bound to the mononuclear iron centre in a bidentate fashion, the remaining open site for oxygen binding and activation is shielded from the substrate or the solvent by a tyrosine residue (Y224). Upon replacing Y224 with alanine or phenylalanine, the FtmOx1 catalysis diverts from endoperoxide formation to the more commonly observed hydroxylation. Subsequent characterizations by a combination of stopped-flow optical absorption spectroscopy and freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy support the presence of transient radical species in FtmOx1 catalysis. Our results help to unravel the novel mechanism for this endoperoxide formation reaction.

Categories: Journal Articles

Jin et al. reply

Wed, 10/28/2015 - 23:00

Jin et al. reply

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15547

Authors: F.-F. Jin, J. Boucharel & I.-I. Lin

replying to I.-L. Moon, S.-H. Kim & C. Wang Nature526, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature15546 (2015)Observational and modelling studies suggest that subsurface ocean temperature plays a major part in tropical cyclone intensification. In a recent Letter we reported that through

Categories: Journal Articles

Success against blindness encourages gene therapy researchers

Wed, 10/28/2015 - 09:00

Success against blindness encourages gene therapy researchers

Nature 526, 7574 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/526487a

Author: Heidi Ledford

Positive news buoys a beleaguered field, but treatment benefits may fade.

Categories: Journal Articles

The lab that knows why you’re so busy

Wed, 10/28/2015 - 09:00

The lab that knows why you’re so busy

Nature 526, 7574 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/526492a

Author: Helen Pearson

Why does modern life seem so hectic? An Oxford centre is trying to find answers with the world's biggest collection of time-use diaries.

Categories: Journal Articles

Corrigendum: A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Corrigendum: A basal ichthyosauriform with a short snout from the Lower Triassic of China

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15533

Authors: Ryosuke Motani, Da-Yong Jiang, Guan-Bao Chen, Andrea Tintori, Olivier Rieppel, Cheng Ji & Jian-Dong Huang

Nature517, 485–488 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature13866The data matrix in the original Supplementary Data 3 of this Letter reproduced the tree topology shown in Extended Data Fig. 3 but the accompanying character descriptions did not match the coding given

Categories: Journal Articles

Corrigendum: Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Corrigendum: Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15737

Authors: Flaviano Morone & Hernán A. Makse

Nature524, 65–68 (2015); doi:10.1038/nature14604In the Acknowledgements section of this Letter, ‘ARL’ should read ‘Army Research Laboratory Cooperative Agreement Number W911NF-09-2-0053 (the ARL Network Science CTA)’. This has been corrected in the online versions of the paper.

Categories: Journal Articles

Retraction: Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Retraction: Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals

Nature 527, 7579 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature15745

Authors: Xiaoyong Wang, Xiaofan Ren, Keith Kahen, Megan A. Hahn, Manju Rajeswaran, Sara Maccagnano-Zacher, John Silcox, George E. Cragg, Alexander L. Efros & Todd D. Krauss

Nature459, 686–689 (2009); doi:10.1038/nature08072In this Letter, we reported the unusual non-blinking characteristics of the fluorescence from individual CdZnSe/ZnSe alloyed quantum dots. However, it has recently come to our attention that similar fluorescence behaviour was seen by

Categories: Journal Articles

Burst bubbles

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Burst bubbles

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526609b

Two medical-technology companies illustrate the ups and downs of innovation.

Categories: Journal Articles

Ghost story

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Ghost story

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526610a

The problem of abandoned fishing gear and its effects on marine life deserve greater attention.

Categories: Journal Articles

Forensic DNA evidence is not infallible

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Forensic DNA evidence is not infallible

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/526611a

Author: Cynthia M. Cale

As DNA analysis techniques become more sensitive, we must be careful to reassess the probabilities of error, argues Cynthia M. Cale.

Categories: Journal Articles

Zoology: Bright light as sex signal

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Zoology: Bright light as sex signal

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526612a

Brighter female glow-worms lay more eggs than their dim rivals and are more attractive to potential nocturnal mates.Juhani Hopkins at the University of Oulu in Finland and his colleagues allowed 26 female glow-worms (Lampyris noctiluca; pictured) to mate in the lab.

Categories: Journal Articles

Neuroscience: Alzheimer's clue from spatial test

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Neuroscience: Alzheimer's clue from spatial test

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526612b

Young adults who are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease show abnormal function in a part of the brain involved in spatial navigation.Nikolai Axmacher at Ruhr University Bochum in Germany and his colleagues used neuroimaging to measure the functioning of the 'grid-cell' system

Categories: Journal Articles

Astronomy: Red-giant rogue in Andromeda

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Astronomy: Red-giant rogue in Andromeda

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526612c

Astronomers have spotted a giant 'runaway star' speeding through the Andromeda galaxy; the first of its kind seen outside the Milky Way.Whereas most stars flow together around the centre of their galaxy, some, known as runaways, travel at different directions and speeds to their

Categories: Journal Articles

Materials: Iron skin senses the softest touch

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Materials: Iron skin senses the softest touch

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526612d

An iron-based artificial skin can sense the lightest touch.Ahmed Alfadhel and Jürgen Kosel at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, made a tactile sensor by embedding iron nanowires in hair-like structures called cilia, made of a polymer called

Categories: Journal Articles

Genomics: Gene regulation predates animals

Tue, 10/27/2015 - 23:00

Genomics: Gene regulation predates animals

Nature 526, 7575 (2015). doi:10.1038/526612e

The oldest ancestor of animal life used the same tricks that modern humans do to turn genes on and off.Alex de Mendoza at the Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Barcelona, Spain, and his colleagues studied gene regulation in the fungus-like single-celled organism Creolimax fragrantissima

Categories: Journal Articles