Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
  • Oxidative trapping of DNA polymerase {beta} in vivo [Biochemistry]
    [Jul 2015]

    Free radical attack on the C1′ position of DNA deoxyribose generates the oxidized abasic (AP) site 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). Upon encountering dL, AP lyase enzymes such as DNA polymerase β (Polβ) form dead-end, covalent intermediates in vitro during attempted DNA repair. However, the conditions that lead to the in vivo formation...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • FUS links RNAP II to U1 snRNP [Biochemistry]
    [Jul 2015]

    Pre-mRNA splicing is coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We previously showed that U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) associates with RNAP II, and both RNAP II and U1 snRNP are also the most abundant factors associated with the protein fused-in-sarcoma (FUS), which is mutated to cause the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Structure of C. elegans GLD-2-GLD-3 [Biochemistry]
    [Jul 2015]

    The Caenorhabditis elegans germ-line development defective (GLD)-2–GLD-3 complex up-regulates the expression of genes required for meiotic progression. GLD-2–GLD-3 acts by extending the short poly(A) tail of germ-line–specific mRNAs, switching them from a dormant state into a translationally active state. GLD-2 is a cytoplasmic noncanonical poly(A) polymerase that lacks the RNA-binding...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Structure of the 26S proteasome-Ubp6 complex [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Jul 2015]

    In eukaryotic cells, the 26S proteasome is responsible for the regulated degradation of intracellular proteins. Several cofactors interact transiently with this large macromolecular machine and modulate its function. The deubiquitylating enzyme ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 6 [Ubp6; ubiquitin-specific protease (USP) 14 in mammals] is the most abundant proteasome-interacting protein and has...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • FBXO31 degrades MDM2 following DNA damage [Cell Biology]
    [Jul 2015]

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a critical role in maintaining genomic stability. In response to genotoxic stress, p53 levels increase and induce cell-cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, thereby preventing replication of damaged DNA. In unstressed cells, p53 is maintained at a low level. The major negative regulator of p53 is...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Mitochondrial trafficking in tumor cell invasion [Cell Biology]
    [Jul 2015]

    Molecular therapies are hallmarks of “personalized” medicine, but how tumors adapt to these agents is not well-understood. Here we show that small-molecule inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) currently in the clinic induce global transcriptional reprogramming in tumors, with activation of growth factor receptors, (re)phosphorylation of Akt and mammalian target of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • PI(4)P-dependent membrane traffic in C. albicans [Cell Biology]
    [Jul 2015]

    The phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P], generated at the Golgi and plasma membrane, has been implicated in many processes, including membrane traffic, yet its role in cell morphology changes, such as the budding to filamentous growth transition, is unknown. We show that Golgi PI(4)P is required for such a transition in the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Role of miR-148a in TRAIL response in NSCLC [Cell Biology]
    [Jul 2015]

    Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been shown to induce apoptosis in malignant cells without inducing significant toxicity in normal cells. However, several carcinomas, including lung cancer, remain resistant to TRAIL. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • GIPs organize centromeres [Cell Biology]
    [Jul 2015]

    Centromeres play a pivotal role in maintaining genome integrity by facilitating the recruitment of kinetochore and sister-chromatid cohesion proteins, both required for correct chromosome segregation. Centromeres are epigenetically specified by the presence of the histone H3 variant (CENH3). In this study, we investigate the role of the highly conserved γ-tubulin...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • O-glycans direct selectin ligands to lipid rafts [Cell Biology]
    [Jul 2015]

    Palmitoylated cysteines typically target transmembrane proteins to domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids (lipid rafts). P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), CD43, and CD44 are O-glycosylated proteins on leukocytes that associate with lipid rafts. During inflammation, they transduce signals by engaging selectins as leukocytes roll in venules, and they move to the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Lake Mega-Chad fluctuation since the LGM [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    [Jul 2015]

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Broad evidence for the dilution effect hypothesis [Ecology]
    [Jul 2015]

    Infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, and domesticated species are increasing worldwide, driving the need to understand the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent patterns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked. For example, the dilution effect hypothesis posits that these...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Climate-driven diversity loss in a grassland [Ecology]
    [Jul 2015]

    Local ecological communities represent the scale at which species coexist and share resources, and at which diversity has been experimentally shown to underlie stability, productivity, invasion resistance, and other desirable community properties. Globally, community diversity shows a mixture of increases and decreases over recent decades, and these changes have relatively...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • K/Pg extinction initiated a new age of fishes [Evolution]
    [Jul 2015]

    Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the exact timing and cause of their radiation and rise to ecological dominance...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Early Cambrian superarmored lobopodian from China [Evolution]
    [Jul 2015]

    We describe Collinsium ciliosum from the early Cambrian Xiaoshiba Lagerstätte in South China, an armored lobopodian with a remarkable degree of limb differentiation including a pair of antenna-like appendages, six pairs of elongate setiferous limbs for suspension feeding, and nine pairs of clawed annulated legs with an anchoring function. Collinsium...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Clade competition in North American canids [Evolution]
    [Jul 2015]

    The history of biodiversity is characterized by a continual replacement of branches in the tree of life. The rise and demise of these branches (clades) are ultimately determined by changes in speciation and extinction rates, often interpreted as a response to varying abiotic and biotic factors. However, understanding the relative...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Swimming muscles power suction feeding [Evolution]
    [Jul 2015]

    Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these fishes are relatively small and...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Supercooled liquid in the pyrochlore Dy2Ti2O7 [Physics]
    [Jul 2015]

    A “supercooled” liquid develops when a fluid does not crystallize upon cooling below its ordering temperature. Instead, the microscopic relaxation times diverge so rapidly that, upon further cooling, equilibration eventually becomes impossible and glass formation occurs. Classic supercooled liquids exhibit specific identifiers including microscopic relaxation times diverging on a Vogel–Tammann–Fulcher...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Nature reduces rumination and sgPFC activation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    [Jul 2015]

    Urbanization has many benefits, but it also is associated with increased levels of mental illness, including depression. It has been suggested that decreased nature experience may help to explain the link between urbanization and mental illness. This suggestion is supported by a growing body of correlational and experimental evidence, which...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition [Statistics]
    [Jul 2015]

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two...
    Categories: Journal Articles