Journal of Structural Biology

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  • Progressive Stochastic Reconstruction Technique (PSRT) for cryo electron tomography
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology

    Author(s): Beata Turoňová , Lukas Marsalek , Tomáš Davidovič , Philipp Slusallek

    Cryo Electron Tomography (cryoET) plays an essential role in Structural Biology, as it is the only technique that allows to study the structure of large macromolecular complexes in their close to native environment in situ. The reconstruction methods currently in use, such as Weighted Back Projection (WBP) or Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT), deliver noisy and low-contrast reconstructions, which complicates the application of high-resolution protocols, such as Subtomogram Averaging (SA). We propose a Progressive Stochastic Reconstruction Technique (PSRT) – a novel iterative approach to tomographic reconstruction in cryoET based on Monte Carlo random walks guided by Metropolis–Hastings sampling strategy. We design a progressive reconstruction scheme to suit the conditions present in cryoET and apply it successfully to reconstructions of macromolecular complexes from both synthetic and experimental datasets. We show how to integrate PSRT into SA, where it provides an elegant solution to the region-of-interest problem and delivers high-contrast reconstructions that significantly improve template-based localization without any loss of high-resolution structural information. Furthermore, the locality of SA is exploited to design an importance sampling scheme which significantly speeds up the otherwise slow Monte Carlo approach. Finally, we design a new memory efficient solution for the specimen-level interior problem of cryoET, removing all associated artifacts.





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  • Cover 2 - Editorial Board
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2









    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Table of Contents / barcode
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2









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  • An N-terminal extension to the hepatitis B virus core protein forms a poorly ordered trimeric spike in assembled virus-like particles
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Richard McGonigle , Wei Boon Yap , Swee Tin Ong , Derek Gatherer , Saskia E. Bakker , Wen Siang Tan , David Bhella

    Virus-like particles composed of the core antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBcAg) have been shown to be an effective platform for the display of foreign epitopes in vaccine development. Heterologous sequences have been successfully inserted at both amino and carboxy termini as well as internally at the major immunodominant epitope. We used cryogenic electron microscopy (CryoEM) and three-dimensional image reconstruction to investigate the structure of VLPs assembled from an N-terminal extended HBcAg that contained a polyhistidine tag. The insert was seen to form a trimeric spike on the capsid surface that was poorly resolved, most likely owing to it being flexible. We hypothesise that the capacity of N-terminal inserts to form trimers may have application in the development of multivalent vaccines to trimeric antigens. Our analysis also highlights the value of tools for local resolution assessment in studies of partially disordered macromolecular assemblies by cryoEM.





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  • Structure of inorganic pyrophosphatase from Staphylococcus aureus reveals conformational flexibility of the active site
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Chathurada S. Gajadeera , Xinyi Zhang , Yinan Wei , Oleg V. Tsodikov

    Cytoplasmic inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPiase) is an enzyme essential for survival of organisms, from bacteria to human. PPiases are divided into two structurally distinct families: family I PPiases are Mg2+-dependent and present in most archaea, eukaryotes and prokaryotes, whereas the relatively less understood family II PPiases are Mn2+-dependent and present only in some archaea, bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. Staphylococcus aureus (SA), a dangerous pathogen and a frequent cause of hospital infections, contains a family II PPiase (PpaC), which is an attractive potential target for development of novel antibacterial agents. We determined a crystal structure of SA PpaC in complex with catalytic Mn2+ at 2.1Å resolution. The active site contains two catalytic Mn2+ binding sites, each half-occupied, reconciling the previously observed 1:1 Mn2+:enzyme stoichiometry with the presence of two divalent metal ion sites in the apo-enzyme. Unexpectedly, despite the absence of the substrate or products in the active site, the two domains of SA PpaC form a closed active site, a conformation observed in structures of other family II PPiases only in complex with substrate or product mimics. A region spanning residues 295–298, which contains a conserved substrate binding RKK motif, is flipped out of the active site, an unprecedented conformation for a PPiase. Because the mutant of Arg295 to an alanine is devoid of activity, this loop likely undergoes an induced-fit conformational change upon substrate binding and product dissociation. This closed conformation of SA PPiase may serve as an attractive target for rational design of inhibitors of this enzyme.





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  • Seeing tobacco mosaic virus through direct electron detectors
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Simon A. Fromm , Tanmay A.M. Bharat , Arjen J. Jakobi , Wim J.H. Hagen , Carsten Sachse

    With the introduction of direct electron detectors (DED) to the field of electron cryo-microscopy, a wave of atomic-resolution structures has become available. As the new detectors still require comparative characterization, we have used tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as a test specimen to study the quality of 3D image reconstructions from data recorded on the two direct electron detector cameras, K2 Summit and Falcon II. Using DED movie frames, we explored related image-processing aspects and compared the performance of micrograph-based and segment-based motion correction approaches. In addition, we investigated the effect of dose deposition on the atomic-resolution structure of TMV and show that radiation damage affects negative carboxyl chains first in a side-chain specific manner. Finally, using 450,000 asymmetric units and limiting the effects of radiation damage, we determined a high-resolution cryo-EM map at 3.35Å resolution. Here, we provide a comparative case study of highly ordered TMV recorded on different direct electron detectors to establish recording and processing conditions that enable structure determination up to 3.2Å in resolution using cryo-EM.





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  • On the use of Legionella/Rickettsia chimeras to investigate the structure and regulation of Rickettsia effector RalF
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Marcia Folly-Klan , Bastien Sancerne , Eric Alix , Craig R. Roy , Jacqueline Cherfils , Valérie Campanacci

    A convenient strategy to interrogate the biology of regulatory proteins is to replace individual domains by an equivalent domain from a related protein of the same species or from an ortholog of another species. It is generally assumed that the overall properties of the native protein are retained in the chimera, and that functional differences reflect only the specific determinants contained in the swapped domains. Here we used this strategy to circumvent the difficulty in obtaining crystals of Rickettsia prowazekii RalF, a bacterial protein that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eukaryotic Arf GTPases. A RalF homolog is encoded by Legionella pneumophila, in which a C-terminal capping domain auto-inhibits the catalytic Sec7 domain and localizes the protein to the Legionella-containing vacuole. The crystal structures of domain-swapped chimeras were determined and used to construct a model of Legionella RalF with a RMSD of less than 1Å with the crystal structure, which validated the use of this approach to build a model of Rickettsia RalF. In the Rickettsia RalF model, sequence differences in the capping domain that target it to specific membranes are accommodated by a shift of the entire domain with respect to the Sec7 domain. However, local sequence changes also give rise to an artifactual salt bridge in one of the chimeras, which likely explains why this chimera is recalcitrant to activation. These findings highlight the structural plasticity whereby chimeras can be engineered, but also underline that unpredictable differences can modify their biochemical responses.





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  • Third Harmonic Generation microscopy as a reliable diagnostic tool for evaluating lipid body modification during cell activation: The example of BV-2 microglia cells
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): E. Gavgiotaki , G. Filippidis , M. Kalognomou , A.A. Tsouko , I. Skordos , C. Fotakis , I. Athanassakis

    Nonlinear optical processes have found widespread applications in fields ranging from fundamental physics to biomedicine. In this study, we attempted to evaluate cell activation by using the Third Harmonic Generation (THG) imaging microscopy as a new diagnostic tool. The BV-2 microglia cell line with or without activation by lipopolysaccharide was chosen as a representative biological model. The results showed that THG imaging could discriminate between the control versus activated state of BV-2 cells not only as to THG signal intensity but also as to THG signal area, while verifying once more that the majority of the intracellular detected signal corresponds to lipid bodies. Since THG imaging is a real time, non-destructive modality and does not require any prior cell processing and staining, the results presented here provide an important tool for normal versus activated cell discrimination, which could be proved very useful in the study of inflammation.





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  • Semi-automated selection of cryo-EM particles in RELION-1.3
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Sjors H.W. Scheres

    The selection of particles suitable for high-resolution cryo-EM structure determination from noisy micrographs may represent a tedious and time-consuming step. Here, a semi-automated particle selection procedure is presented that has been implemented within the open-source software RELION. At the heart of the procedure lies a fully CTF-corrected template-based picking algorithm, which is supplemented by a fast sorting algorithm and reference-free 2D class averaging to remove false positives. With only limited user-interaction, the proposed procedure yields results that are comparable to manual particle selection. Together with an improved graphical user interface, these developments further contribute to turning RELION from a stand-alone refinement program into a convenient image processing pipeline for the entire single-particle approach.





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  • Sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): R. Lasala , N. Coudray , A. Abdine , Z. Zhang , M. Lopez-Redondo , R. Kirshenbaum , J. Alexopoulos , Z. Zolnai , D.L. Stokes , I. Ubarretxena-Belandia

    Electron crystallography is well suited for studying the structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid bilayer environment. This technique relies on electron cryomicroscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, grown generally by reconstitution of purified membrane proteins into proteoliposomes under conditions favoring the formation of well-ordered lattices. Growing these crystals presents one of the major hurdles in the application of this technique. To identify conditions favoring crystallization a wide range of factors that can lead to a vast matrix of possible reagent combinations must be screened. However, in 2D crystallization these factors have traditionally been surveyed in a relatively limited fashion. To address this problem we carried out a detailed analysis of published 2D crystallization conditions for 12 β-barrel and 138 α-helical membrane proteins. From this analysis we identified the most successful conditions and applied them in the design of new sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization. Using these matrices we have run 19 crystallization screens for 16 different membrane proteins totaling over 1300 individual crystallization conditions. Six membrane proteins have yielded diffracting 2D crystals suitable for structure determination, indicating that these new matrices show promise to accelerate the success rate of membrane protein 2D crystallization.





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  • Investigation of resins suitable for the preparation of biological sample for 3-D electron microscopy
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Caroline Kizilyaprak , Giovanni Longo , Jean Daraspe , Bruno M. Humbel

    In the last two decades, the third-dimension has become a focus of attention in electron microscopy to better understand the interactions within subcellular compartments. Initially, transmission electron tomography (TEM tomography) was introduced to image the cell volume in semi-thin sections (∼500nm). With the introduction of the focused ion beam scanning electron microscope, a new tool, FIB–SEM tomography, became available to image much larger volumes. During TEM tomography and FIB–SEM tomography, the resin section is exposed to a high electron/ion dose such that the stability of the resin embedded biological sample becomes an important issue. The shrinkage of a resin section in each dimension, especially in depth, is a well-known phenomenon. To ensure the dimensional integrity of the final volume of the cell, it is important to assess the properties of the different resins and determine the formulation which has the best stability in the electron/ion beam. Here, eight different resin formulations were examined. The effects of radiation damage were evaluated after different times of TEM irradiation. To get additional information on mass-loss and the physical properties of the resins (stiffness and adhesion), the topography of the irradiated areas was analysed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further, the behaviour of the resins was analysed after ion milling of the surface of the sample with different ion currents. In conclusion, two resin formulations, Hard Plus and the mixture of Durcupan/Epon, emerged that were considerably less affected and reasonably stable in the electron/ion beam and thus suitable for the 3-D investigation of biological samples.





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  • Tomo3D 2.0 – Exploitation of Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) for 3D reconstruction
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Jose-Ignacio Agulleiro , Jose-Jesus Fernandez

    Tomo3D is a program for fast tomographic reconstruction on multicore computers. Its high speed stems from code optimization, vectorization with Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE), multithreading and optimization of disk access. Recently, Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX) have been introduced in the x86 processor architecture. Compared to SSE, AVX double the number of simultaneous operations, thus pointing to a potential twofold gain in speed. However, in practice, achieving this potential is extremely difficult. Here, we provide a technical description and an assessment of the optimizations included in Tomo3D to take advantage of AVX instructions. Tomo3D 2.0 allows huge reconstructions to be calculated in standard computers in a matter of minutes. Thus, it will be a valuable tool for electron tomography studies with increasing resolution needs.





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  • Use of a “silver bullet” to resolve crystal lattice dislocation disorder: A cobalamin complex of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: February 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology, Volume 189, Issue 2

    Author(s): Thomas Lagautriere , Ghader Bashiri , Edward N. Baker

    The use of small molecules as “silver bullets” that can bind to generate crosslinks between protein molecules has been advanced as a powerful means of enhancing success in protein crystallization (McPherson and Cudney, 2006). We have explored this approach in attempts to overcome an order–disorder phenomenon that complicated the structural analysis of the enzyme Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (P5CDH, Mtb-PruA). Using the Silver Bullets Bio screen, we obtained new crystal packing using cobalamin as a co-crystallization agent. This crystal form did not display the order–disorder phenomenon previously encountered. Solution of the crystal structure showed that cobalamin molecules are present in the crystal contacts. Although the cobalamin binding probably does not have physiological relevance, it reflects similarities in the nucleotide-binding region of Mtb-PruA, with the nucleotide loop of cobalamin sharing the binding site for the adenine moiety of NAD+.





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  • Crystal structure of a periplasmic solute binding protein in metal-free, intermediate and metal-bound states from Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 30 January 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology

    Author(s): Nidhi Sharma , Purushotham Selvakumar , Sumit Bhose , Dilip Kumar Ghosh , Pravindra Kumar , Ashwani Kumar Sharma

    The Znu system, a member of ABC transporter family, is critical for survival and pathogenesis of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLA). Two homologues of this system have been identified in CLA. Here, we report high resolution crystal structure of a periplasmic solute binding protein from second of the two gene clusters of Znu system in CLA (CLas-ZnuA2) in metal-free, intermediate and metal-bound states. CLas-ZnuA2 showed maximum sequence identity to the Mn/Fe-specific solute binding proteins (SBPs) of cluster A-I family. The overall fold of CLas-ZnuA2 is similar to the related cluster A-I family SBPs. The sequence and structure analysis revealed the unique features of CLas-ZnuA2. The comparison of CLas-ZnuA2 structure in three states showed that metal binding and release is facilitated by a large displacement along with a change in orientation of the side chain for one of the metal binding residue (His39) flipped away from metal binding site in metal-free form. The crystal structure captured in intermediate state of metal binding revealed the changes in conformation and interaction of the loop hosting His39 during the metal binding. A rigid body movement of C-domain along with partial unfolding of linker helix at its C-terminal during metal binding, as reported for PsaA, was not observed in CLas-ZnuA2. The present results suggest that despite showing maximum sequence identity to the Mn/Fe-specific SBPs, the mechanistic resemblance of CLas-ZnuA2 seems to be closer to Zn-specific SBPs of cluster A-I family.





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  • A statistical approach to the initial volume problem in Single Particle Analysis by Electron Microscopy
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 28 January 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology

    Author(s): C.O.S. Sorzano , J. Vargas , J.M. de la Rosa-Trevín , J. Otón , A.L. Álvarez-Cabrera , V. Abrishami , E. Sesmero , R. Marabini , J.M. Carazo

    Cryo Electron Microscopy is a powerful Structural Biology technique, allowing the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules. In particular, the structural study of purified macromolecules –often referred as Single Particle Analysis(SPA)– is normally performed through an iterative process that needs a first estimation of the three-dimensional structure that is progressively refined using experimental data. It is well-known the local optimisation nature of this refinement, so that the initial choice of this first structure may substantially change the final result. Computational algorithms aiming to providing this first structure already exist. However, the question is far from settled and more robust algorithms are still needed so that the refinement process can be performed with sufficient guarantees. In this article we present a new algorithm that addresses the initial volume problem in SPA by setting it in a Weighted Least Squares framework and calculating the weights through a statistical approach based on the cumulative density function of different image similarity measures. We show that the new algorithm is significantly more robust than other state-of-the-art algorithms currently in use in the field. The algorithm is available as part of the software suite Xmipp (http://xmipp.cnb.csic.es) and Scipion (http://scipion.cnb.csic.es) under the name “Significant”.





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  • Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 27 January 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology

    Author(s): Zahra El-Schich , Anna Mölder , Helena Tassidis , Pirkko Härkönen , Maria Falck Miniotis , Anette Gjörloff Wingren

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1–3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds.





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  • Changes in the micro- and nanostructure of siliceous frustule valves in the diatom Synedra acus under the effect of colchicine treatment at different stages of the cell cycle
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology

    Author(s): Ksenia V. Kharitonenko , Yekaterina D. Bedoshvili , Yelena V. Likhoshway

    The important role of the cytoskeleton in the morphogenesis of siliceous frustule components, which are synthesized within the diatom cells, has been revealed due to experiments with microtubule inhibitors. It has been shown that colchicine entering the diatom cell inhibits polymerization of tubulin, the main protein of microtubules, thereby disrupting the normal processes of biogenic silica deposition and daughter valve morphogenesis. In this study, experiments with a synchronized culture of the pennate diatom Synedra acus have been performed to determine the timing and duration of the formation of various valve components and analyze the effect of colchicine at a subtoxic concentration on the structure of daughter valves at different stages of their morphogenesis. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed several types of micro- and nanoscale anomalies in daughter valve morphology, with their frequency varying depending on the time of colchicine treatment. Laser scanning microscopy of preparations vitally stained with Tubulin Tracker Green has shown that polymerized tubulin at early stages of valve morphogenesis is localized along the periphery of the developing valve. This is evidence for an important role of microtubules in the horizontal growth of the valve at the stage when its general structural pattern is established, including its shape and arrangement of basic micro- and nanostructures. Treatment with a microtubule inhibitor at a certain stage of valve morphogenesis makes it possible to obtain new forms with a specific structure of siliceous components that hold promise for use in nanotechnologies.





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  • Cryo-electron tomography of plunge-frozen whole bacteria and vitreous sections to analyze the recently described bacterial cytoplasmic structure, the Stack
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 21 January 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology

    Author(s): Lidia Delgado , Gema Martínez , Carmen López-Iglesias , Elena Mercadé

    Cryo-electron tomography (CET) of plunge-frozen whole bacteria and vitreous sections (CETOVIS) were used to revise and expand the structural knowledge of the “Stack”, a recently described cytoplasmic structure in the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas deceptionensis M1T. The advantages of both techniques can be complementarily combined to obtain more reliable insights into cells and their components with three-dimensional imaging at different resolutions. Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) and CET of frozen-hydrated P. deceptionensis M1T cells confirmed that Stacks are found at different locations within the cell cytoplasm, in variable number, separately or grouped together, very close to the plasma membrane (PM) and oriented at different angles (from 35° to 90°) to the PM, thus establishing that they were not artifacts of the previous sample preparation methods. CET of plunge-frozen whole bacteria and vitreous sections verified that each Stack consisted of a pile of oval disc-like subunits, each disc being surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane and separated from each other by a constant distance with a mean value of 5.2±1.3nm. FM4-64 staining and confocal microscopy corroborated the lipid nature of the membrane of the Stacked discs. Stacks did not appear to be invaginations of the PM because no continuity between both membranes was visible when whole bacteria were analyzed. We are still far from deciphering the function of these new structures, but a first experimental attempt links the Stacks with a given phase of the cell replication process.





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  • DNA buckling in bacteriophage cavities as a mechanism to aid virus assembly
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology

    Author(s): Andrew D. Hirsh , N.C. Perkins

    While relatively simple biologically, bacteriophages are sophisticated biochemical machines that execute a precise sequence of events during virus assembly, DNA packaging, and ejection. These stages of the viral life cycle require intricate coordination of viral components whose structures are being revealed by single molecule experiments and high resolution (cryo-electron microscopy) reconstructions. For example, during packaging, bacteriophages employ some of the strongest known molecular motors to package DNA against increasing pressure within the viral capsid shell. Located upstream of the motor is an elaborate portal system through which DNA is threaded. A high resolution reconstruction of the portal system for bacteriophage ϕ 29 reveals that DNA buckles inside a small cavity under large compressive forces. In this study, we demonstrate that DNA can also buckle in other bacteriophages including T7 and P22. Using a computational rod model for DNA, we demonstrate that a DNA buckle can initiate and grow within the small confines of a cavity under biologically-attainable force levels. The forces of DNA-cavity contact and DNA–DNA electrostatic repulsion ultimately limit cavity filling. Despite conforming to very different cavity geometries, the buckled DNA within T7 and P22 exhibits near equal volumetric energy density (∼1kT/nm3) and energetic cost of packaging (∼22kT). We hypothesize that a DNA buckle creates large forces on the cavity interior to signal the conformational changes to end packaging. In addition, a DNA buckle may help retain the genome prior to tail assembly through significantly increased contact area with the portal.





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  • Paper of the Year Award
    [Feb 2015]

    Publication date: Available online 17 January 2015
    Source:Journal of Structural Biology









    Categories: Journal Articles