BMC Structural Biology
The latest research articles published by BMC Structural Biology
Structural insights into Escherichia coli polymyxin B resistance protein D with X-ray crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering
Background: Polymyxin B resistance protein D (PmrD) plays a key role in the polymyxin B-resistance pathway, as it is the signaling protein that can act as a specific connecter between PmrA/PmrB and PhoP/PhoQ. We conducted structural analysis to characterize Escherichia coli (E. coli) PmrD, which exhibits different features compared with PmrD in other bacteria. Results: The X-ray crystal structure of E. coli PmrD was determined at a 2.00 Å resolution, revealing novel information such as the unambiguous secondary structures of the protein and the presence of a disulfide bond. Furthermore, various assays such as native gel electrophoresis, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, were performed to elucidate the structural and functional role of the internal disulfide bond in E. coli PmrD. Conclusions: The structural characteristics of E. coli PmrD were clearly identified via diverse techniques. The findings help explain the different protective mechanism of E. coli compared to other Gram-negative bacteria.
Structure and functional characterization of pyruvate decarboxylase from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus
Background: Bacterial pyruvate decarboxylases (PDC) are rare. Their role in ethanol production and in bacterially mediated ethanologenic processes has, however, ensured a continued and growing interest. PDCs from Zymomonas mobilis (ZmPDC), Zymobacter palmae (ZpPDC) and Sarcina ventriculi (SvPDC) have been characterized and ZmPDC has been produced successfully in a range of heterologous hosts. PDCs from the Acetobacteraceae and their role in metabolism have not been characterized to the same extent. Examples include Gluconobacter oxydans (GoPDC), G. diazotrophicus (GdPDC) and Acetobacter pasteutrianus (ApPDC). All of these organisms are of commercial importance. Results: This study reports the kinetic characterization and the crystal structure of a PDC from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (GdPDC). Enzyme kinetic analysis indicates a high affinity for pyruvate (K M 0.06 mM at pH 5), high catalytic efficiencies (1.3 • 106 M−1•s−1 at pH 5), pHopt of 5.5 and Topt at 45°C. The enzyme is not thermostable (T½ of 18 minutes at 60°C) and the calculated number of bonds between monomers and dimers do not give clear indications for the relatively lower thermostability compared to other PDCs. The structure is highly similar to those described for Z. mobilis (ZmPDC) and A. pasteurianus PDC (ApPDC) with a rmsd value of 0.57 Å for Cα when comparing GdPDC to that of ApPDC. Indole-3-pyruvate does not serve as a substrate for the enzyme. Structural differences occur in two loci, involving the regions Thr341 to Thr352 and Asn499 to Asp503. Conclusions: This is the first study of the PDC from G. diazotrophicus (PAL5) and lays the groundwork for future research into its role in this endosymbiont. The crystal structure of GdPDC indicates the enzyme to be evolutionarily closely related to homologues from Z. mobilis and A. pasteurianus and suggests strong selective pressure to keep the enzyme characteristics in a narrow range. The pH optimum together with reduced thermostability likely reflect the host organisms niche and conditions under which these properties have been naturally selected for. The lack of activity on indole-3-pyruvate excludes this decarboxylase as the enzyme responsible for indole acetic acid production in G. diazotrophicus.
Background: Thanks to the growth in sequence and structure databases, more than 50 million sequences are now available in UniProt and 100,000 structures in the PDB. Rich information about protein–protein interfaces can be obtained by a comprehensive study of protein contacts in the PDB, their sequence conservation and geometric features. Results: An automated computational pipeline was developed to run our Evolutionary Protein–Protein Interface Classifier (EPPIC) software on the entire PDB and store the results in a relational database, currently containing > 800,000 interfaces. This allows the analysis of interface data on a PDB-wide scale. Two large benchmark datasets of biological interfaces and crystal contacts, each containing about 3000 entries, were automatically generated based on criteria thought to be strong indicators of interface type. The BioMany set of biological interfaces includes NMR dimers solved as crystal structures and interfaces that are preserved across diverse crystal forms, as catalogued by the Protein Common Interface Database (ProtCID) from Xu and Dunbrack. The second dataset, XtalMany, is derived from interfaces that would lead to infinite assemblies and are therefore crystal contacts. BioMany and XtalMany were used to benchmark the EPPIC approach. The performance of EPPIC was also compared to classifications from the Protein Interfaces, Surfaces, and Assemblies (PISA) program on a PDB-wide scale, finding that the two approaches give the same call in about 88% of PDB interfaces. By comparing our safest predictions to the PDB author annotations, we provide a lower-bound estimate of the error rate of biological unit annotations in the PDB. Additionally, we developed a PyMOL plugin for direct download and easy visualization of EPPIC interfaces for any PDB entry. Both the datasets and the PyMOL plugin are available at http://www.eppic-web.org/ewui/\#downloads. Conclusions: Our computational pipeline allows us to analyze protein–protein contacts and their sequence conservation across the entire PDB. Two new benchmark datasets are provided, which are over an order of magnitude larger than existing manually curated ones. These tools enable the comprehensive study of several aspects of protein–protein contacts in the PDB and represent a basis for future, even larger scale studies of protein–protein interactions.
Molecular dynamics simulations of the Nip7 proteins from the marine deep- and shallow-water Pyrococcus species
Background: The identification of the mechanisms of adaptation of protein structures to extreme environmental conditions is a challenging task of structural biology. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the Nip7 protein involved in RNA processing from the shallow-water (P. furiosus) and the deep-water (P. abyssi) marine hyperthermophylic archaea at different temperatures (300 and 373 K) and pressures (0.1, 50 and 100 MPa). The aim was to disclose similarities and differences between the deep- and shallow-sea protein models at different temperatures and pressures. Results: The current results demonstrate that the 3D models of the two proteins at all the examined values of pressures and temperatures are compact, stable and similar to the known crystal structure of the P. abyssi Nip7. The structural deviations and fluctuations in the polypeptide chain during the MD simulations were the most pronounced in the loop regions, their magnitude being larger for the C-terminal domain in both proteins. A number of highly mobile segments the protein globule presumably involved in protein-protein interactions were identified. Regions of the polypeptide chain with significant difference in conformational dynamics between the deep- and shallow-water proteins were identified. Conclusions: The results of our analysis demonstrated that in the examined ranges of temperatures and pressures, increase in temperature has a stronger effect on change in the dynamic properties of the protein globule than the increase in pressure. The conformational changes of both the deep- and shallow-sea protein models under increasing temperature and pressure are non-uniform. Our current results indicate that amino acid substitutions between shallow- and deep-water proteins only slightly affect overall stability of two proteins. Rather, they may affect the interactions of the Nip7 protein with its protein or RNA partners.
Background: Despite the chloride anion is involved in fundamental biological processes, its interactions with proteins are little known. In particular, we lack a systematic survey of its coordination spheres. Results: The analysis of a non-redundant set (pairwise sequence identity < 30%) of 1739 high resolution (<2 Å) crystal structures that contain at least one chloride anion shows that the first coordination spheres of the chlorides are essentially constituted by hydrogen bond donors. Amongst the side-chains positively charged, arginine interacts with chlorides much more frequently than lysine. Although the most common coordination number is 4, the coordination stereochemistry is closer to the expected geometry when the coordination number is 5, suggesting that this is the coordination number towards which the chlorides tend when they interact with proteins. Conclusions: The results of these analyses are useful in interpreting, describing, and validating new protein crystal structures that contain chloride anions.
Structural insight into the recognition of amino-acylated initiator tRNA by eIF5B in the 80S initiation complex
Background: From bacteria to eukarya, the specific recognition of the amino-acylated initiator tRNA by the universally conserved translational GTPase eIF5B/IF2 is one of the most central interactions in the process of translation initiation. However, the molecular details, particularly also in the context of ribosomal initiation complexes, are only partially understood. Results: A reinterpretation of the 6.6 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the eukaryal 80S initiation complex using the recently published crystal structure of eIF5B reveals that domain IV of eIF5B forms extensive interaction interfaces with the Met-tRNAi, which, in contrast to the previous model, directly involve the methionylated 3′ CCA-end of the acceptor stem. These contacts are mediated by a conserved surface area, which is homologous to the surface areas mediating the interactions between IF2 and fMet-tRNAfMet as well as between domain II of EF-Tu and amino-acylated elongator tRNAs. Conclusions: The reported observations provide novel direct structural insight into the specific recognition of the methionylated acceptor stem by eIF5B domain IV and demonstrate its universality among eIF5B/IF2 orthologs in the three domains of life.