This paper presents results from empirical studies of object-oriented, class level mutation operators, using the auto- mated analysis and testing tool MuJava. Class mutation operators modify OO programming language features such as inheritance, polymorphism, dynamic binding and encapsulation. This paper presents data from 866 classes in six open-source programs. Several new class-level mutation operators are defined in this paper and an analysis of the number of mutants generated is provided. Techniques for eliminating some equivalent mutants are described and data from an automated tool are provided. One important result is that class-level mutation operators yield far more equivalent mutants than traditional, statement-level, operators. Another is that there are far fewer class-level mutants than statement-level mutants. Together, these data suggest that mutation for inter-class testing can be practically affordable.
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