The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) is widely used to transmit data across the Internet. XML schemas are used to define the syntax of XML messages. XML-based applications can receive messages from arbitrary applications, as long as they follow the protocol defined by the schema. A receiving application must either validate XML messages, process the data in the XML message without validation, or modify the XML message to ensure that it conforms to the XML schema. A problem for developers is how well the application performs the validation, data processing, and, when necessary, transformation. This paper describes and gives examples of a method to generate tests for XML-based communication by modifying and then instantiating XML schemas. The modified schemas are based on precisely defined schema primitive perturbation operators.
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