Skip navigation links
ec

Class Individual

    • Field Summary

      Fields 
      Modifier and Type Field and Description
      boolean evaluated
      Has the individual been evaluated and its fitness determined yet?
      static java.lang.String EVALUATED_PREAMBLE
      A string appropriate to put in front of whether or not the individual has been printed.
      Fitness fitness
      The fitness of the Individual.
      static java.lang.String P_INDIVIDUAL
      A reasonable parameter base element for individuals
      Species species
      The species of the Individual.
    • Constructor Summary

      Constructors 
      Constructor and Description
      Individual() 
    • Method Summary

      All Methods Instance Methods Abstract Methods Concrete Methods Deprecated Methods 
      Modifier and Type Method and Description
      java.lang.Object clone()
      Creates a new individual cloned from a prototype, and suitable to begin use in its own evolutionary context.
      int compareTo(java.lang.Object o)
      Returns -1 if I am BETTER in some way than the other Individual, 1 if the other Individual is BETTER than me, and 0 if we are equivalent.
      double distanceTo(Individual otherInd)
      Returns the metric distance to another individual, if such a thing can be measured.
      abstract boolean equals(java.lang.Object ind)
      Returns true if I am genetically "equal" to ind.
      java.lang.String genotypeToString()
      Print to a string the genotype of the Individual in a fashion intended to be parsed in again via parseGenotype(...).
      java.lang.String genotypeToStringForHumans()
      Print to a string the genotype of the Individual in a fashion readable by humans, and not intended to be parsed in again.
      abstract int hashCode()
      Returns a hashcode for the individual, such that individuals which are equals(...) each other always return the same hash code.
      void merge(EvolutionState state, Individual other)
      Replaces myself with the other Individual, while merging our evaluation results together.
      protected void parseGenotype(EvolutionState state, java.io.LineNumberReader reader)
      This method is used only by the default version of readIndividual(state,reader), and it is intended to be overridden to parse in that part of the individual that was outputted in the genotypeToString() method.
      void printIndividual(EvolutionState state, int log)
      Should print the individual in a way that can be read by computer, including its fitness, with a verbosity of Output.V_NO_GENERAL.
      void printIndividual(EvolutionState state, int log, int verbosity)
      Deprecated. 
      Verbosity no longer used.
      void printIndividual(EvolutionState state, java.io.PrintWriter writer)
      Should print the individual in a way that can be read by computer, including its fitness.
      void printIndividualForHumans(EvolutionState state, int log)
      Should print the individual out in a pleasing way for humans, with a verbosity of Output.V_NO_GENERAL.
      void printIndividualForHumans(EvolutionState state, int log, int verbosity)
      Deprecated. 
      Verbosity no longer used.
      void readGenotype(EvolutionState state, java.io.DataInput dataInput)
      Reads in the genotypic information from a DataInput, erasing the previous genotype of this Individual.
      void readIndividual(EvolutionState state, java.io.DataInput dataInput)
      Reads the binary form of an individual from a DataInput, erasing the previous information stored in this Individual.
      void readIndividual(EvolutionState state, java.io.LineNumberReader reader)
      Reads in the individual from a form printed by printIndividual(), erasing the previous information stored in this Individual.
      void setup(EvolutionState state, Parameter base)
      This should be used to set up only those things which you share in common with all other individuals in your species; individual-specific items which make you you should be filled in by Species.newIndividual(...), and modified by breeders.
      long size()
      Returns the "size" of the individual.
      java.lang.String toString()
      Overridden here because hashCode() is not expected to return the pointer to the object.
      void writeGenotype(EvolutionState state, java.io.DataOutput dataOutput)
      Writes the genotypic information to a DataOutput.
      void writeIndividual(EvolutionState state, java.io.DataOutput dataOutput)
      Writes the binary form of an individual out to a DataOutput.
      • Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object

        finalize, getClass, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait
    • Field Detail

      • P_INDIVIDUAL

        public static final java.lang.String P_INDIVIDUAL
        A reasonable parameter base element for individuals
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • EVALUATED_PREAMBLE

        public static final java.lang.String EVALUATED_PREAMBLE
        A string appropriate to put in front of whether or not the individual has been printed.
        See Also:
        Constant Field Values
      • fitness

        public Fitness fitness
        The fitness of the Individual.
      • species

        public Species species
        The species of the Individual.
      • evaluated

        public boolean evaluated
        Has the individual been evaluated and its fitness determined yet?
    • Constructor Detail

      • Individual

        public Individual()
    • Method Detail

      • clone

        public java.lang.Object clone()
        Description copied from interface: Prototype
        Creates a new individual cloned from a prototype, and suitable to begin use in its own evolutionary context.

        Typically this should be a full "deep" clone. However, you may share certain elements with other objects rather than clone hem, depending on the situation:

        • If you hold objects which are shared with other instances, don't clone them.
        • If you hold objects which must be unique, clone them.
        • If you hold objects which were given to you as a gesture of kindness, and aren't owned by you, you probably shouldn't clone them.
        • DON'T attempt to clone: Singletons, Cliques, or Populations, or Subpopulation.
        • Arrays are not cloned automatically; you may need to clone an array if you're not sharing it with other instances. Arrays have the nice feature of being copyable by calling clone() on them.

        Implementations.

        • If no ancestor of yours implements clone(), and you have no need to do clone deeply, and you are abstract, then you should not declare clone().
        • If no ancestor of yours implements clone(), and you have no need to do clone deeply, and you are not abstract, then you should implement it as follows:

           public Object clone() 
               {
               try
                   { 
                   return super.clone();
                   }
               catch ((CloneNotSupportedException e)
                   { throw new InternalError(); } // never happens
               }
                  
        • If no ancestor of yours implements clone(), but you need to deep-clone some things, then you should implement it as follows:

           public Object clone() 
               {
               try
                   { 
                   MyObject myobj = (MyObject) (super.clone());
          
                   // put your deep-cloning code here...
                   }
               catch ((CloneNotSupportedException e)
                   { throw new InternalError(); } // never happens
               return myobj;
               } 
                  
        • If an ancestor has implemented clone(), and you also need to deep clone some things, then you should implement it as follows:

           public Object clone() 
               { 
               MyObject myobj = (MyObject) (super.clone());
          
               // put your deep-cloning code here...
          
               return myobj;
               } 
                  
        Specified by:
        clone in interface Prototype
        Overrides:
        clone in class java.lang.Object
      • size

        public long size()
        Returns the "size" of the individual. This is used for things like parsimony pressure. The default form of this method returns 0 -- if you care about parsimony pressure, you'll need to override the default to provide a more descriptive measure of size.
      • equals

        public abstract boolean equals(java.lang.Object ind)
        Returns true if I am genetically "equal" to ind. This should mostly be interpreted as saying that we are of the same class and that we hold the same data. It should NOT be a pointer comparison.
        Overrides:
        equals in class java.lang.Object
      • hashCode

        public abstract int hashCode()
        Returns a hashcode for the individual, such that individuals which are equals(...) each other always return the same hash code.
        Overrides:
        hashCode in class java.lang.Object
      • toString

        public java.lang.String toString()
        Overridden here because hashCode() is not expected to return the pointer to the object. toString() normally uses hashCode() to print a unique identifier, and that's no longer the case. You're welcome to override this anyway you like to make the individual print out in a more lucid fashion.
        Overrides:
        toString in class java.lang.Object
      • genotypeToStringForHumans

        public java.lang.String genotypeToStringForHumans()
        Print to a string the genotype of the Individual in a fashion readable by humans, and not intended to be parsed in again. The fitness and evaluated flag should not be included. The default form simply calls toString(), but you'll probably want to override this to something else.
      • genotypeToString

        public java.lang.String genotypeToString()
        Print to a string the genotype of the Individual in a fashion intended to be parsed in again via parseGenotype(...). The fitness and evaluated flag should not be included. The default form simply calls toString(), which is almost certainly wrong, and you'll probably want to override this to something else.
      • setup

        public void setup(EvolutionState state,
                          Parameter base)
        This should be used to set up only those things which you share in common with all other individuals in your species; individual-specific items which make you you should be filled in by Species.newIndividual(...), and modified by breeders.
        Specified by:
        setup in interface Prototype
        Specified by:
        setup in interface Setup
        See Also:
        Prototype.setup(EvolutionState,Parameter)
      • printIndividualForHumans

        public void printIndividualForHumans(EvolutionState state,
                                             int log)
        Should print the individual out in a pleasing way for humans, with a verbosity of Output.V_NO_GENERAL.
      • printIndividualForHumans

        public final void printIndividualForHumans(EvolutionState state,
                                                   int log,
                                                   int verbosity)
        Deprecated. Verbosity no longer used.
        Should print the individual out in a pleasing way for humans, including its fitness, using state.output.println(...,verbosity,log) You can get fitness to print itself at the appropriate time by calling fitness.printFitnessForHumans(state,log,verbosity);

        The default form of this method simply prints out whether or not the individual has been evaluated, its fitness, and then calls Individual.genotypeToStringForHumans(). Feel free to override this to produce more sophisticated behavior, though it is rare to need to -- instead you could just override genotypeToStringForHumans().

      • printIndividual

        public void printIndividual(EvolutionState state,
                                    int log)
        Should print the individual in a way that can be read by computer, including its fitness, with a verbosity of Output.V_NO_GENERAL.
      • printIndividual

        public final void printIndividual(EvolutionState state,
                                          int log,
                                          int verbosity)
        Deprecated. Verbosity no longer used.
        Should print the individual in a way that can be read by computer, including its fitness, using state.output.println(...,verbosity,log) You can get fitness to print itself at the appropriate time by calling fitness.printFitness(state,log,verbosity);

        The default form of this method simply prints out whether or not the individual has been evaluated, its fitness, and then calls Individual.genotypeToString(). Feel free to override this to produce more sophisticated behavior, though it is rare to need to -- instead you could just override genotypeToString().

      • printIndividual

        public void printIndividual(EvolutionState state,
                                    java.io.PrintWriter writer)
        Should print the individual in a way that can be read by computer, including its fitness. You can get fitness to print itself at the appropriate time by calling fitness.printFitness(state,log,writer); Usually you should try to use printIndividual(state,log,verbosity) instead -- use this method only if you can't print through the Output facility for some reason.

        The default form of this method simply prints out whether or not the individual has been evaluated, its fitness, and then calls Individual.genotypeToString(). Feel free to override this to produce more sophisticated behavior, though it is rare to need to -- instead you could just override genotypeToString().

      • readIndividual

        public void readIndividual(EvolutionState state,
                                   java.io.LineNumberReader reader)
                            throws java.io.IOException
        Reads in the individual from a form printed by printIndividual(), erasing the previous information stored in this Individual. If you are trying to create an Individual from information read in from a stream or DataInput, see the various newIndividual() methods in Species. The default form of this method simply reads in evaluation information, then fitness information, and then calls parseGenotype() (which you should implement). The Species is not changed or attached, so you may need to do that elsewhere. Feel free to override this method to produce more sophisticated behavior, though it is rare to need to -- instead you could just override parseGenotype().
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException
      • parseGenotype

        protected void parseGenotype(EvolutionState state,
                                     java.io.LineNumberReader reader)
                              throws java.io.IOException
        This method is used only by the default version of readIndividual(state,reader), and it is intended to be overridden to parse in that part of the individual that was outputted in the genotypeToString() method. The default version of this method exits the program with an "unimplemented" error. You'll want to override this method, or to override readIndividual(...) to not use this method.
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException
      • writeIndividual

        public void writeIndividual(EvolutionState state,
                                    java.io.DataOutput dataOutput)
                             throws java.io.IOException
        Writes the binary form of an individual out to a DataOutput. This is not for serialization: the object should only write out the data relevant to the object sufficient to rebuild it from a DataInput. The Species will be reattached later, and you should not write it. The default version of this method writes the evaluated and fitness information, then calls writeGenotype() to write the genotype information. Feel free to override this method to produce more sophisticated behavior, though it is rare to need to -- instead you could just override writeGenotype().
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException
      • writeGenotype

        public void writeGenotype(EvolutionState state,
                                  java.io.DataOutput dataOutput)
                           throws java.io.IOException
        Writes the genotypic information to a DataOutput. Largely called by writeIndividual(), and nothing else. The default simply throws an error. Various subclasses of Individual override this as appropriate. For example, if your custom individual's genotype consists of an array of integers, you might do this:
        
         dataOutput.writeInt(integers.length);
         for(int x=0;x
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException
      • readGenotype

        public void readGenotype(EvolutionState state,
                                 java.io.DataInput dataInput)
                          throws java.io.IOException
        Reads in the genotypic information from a DataInput, erasing the previous genotype of this Individual. Largely called by readIndividual(), and nothing else. If you are trying to create an Individual from information read in from a stream or DataInput, see the various newIndividual() methods in Species. The default simply throws an error. Various subclasses of Individual override this as appropriate. For example, if your custom individual's genotype consists of an array of integers, you might do this:
        
         integers = new int[dataInput.readInt()];
         for(int x=0;x
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException
      • readIndividual

        public void readIndividual(EvolutionState state,
                                   java.io.DataInput dataInput)
                            throws java.io.IOException
        Reads the binary form of an individual from a DataInput, erasing the previous information stored in this Individual. This is not for serialization: the object should only read in the data written out via printIndividual(state,dataInput). If you are trying to create an Individual from information read in from a stream or DataInput, see the various newIndividual() methods in Species. The default form of this method simply reads in evaluation information, then fitness information, and then calls readGenotype() (which you will need to override -- its default form simply throws an error). The Species is not changed or attached, so you may need to do that elsewhere. Feel free to override this method to produce more sophisticated behavior, though it is rare to need to -- instead you could just override readGenotype().
        Throws:
        java.io.IOException
      • distanceTo

        public double distanceTo(Individual otherInd)
        Returns the metric distance to another individual, if such a thing can be measured. Subclassess of Individual should implement this if it exists for their representation. The default implementation here, which isn't very helpful, returns 0 if the individuals are equal and infinity if they are not.
      • compareTo

        public int compareTo(java.lang.Object o)
        Returns -1 if I am BETTER in some way than the other Individual, 1 if the other Individual is BETTER than me, and 0 if we are equivalent. The default implementation assumes BETTER means FITTER, by simply calling compareTo on the fitnesses themse.ves
        Specified by:
        compareTo in interface java.lang.Comparable
      • merge

        public void merge(EvolutionState state,
                          Individual other)
        Replaces myself with the other Individual, while merging our evaluation results together. May destroy the other Individual in the process. By default this procedure calls fitness(merge) to merge the old fitness (backwards) into the new fitness, then entirely overwrites myself with the other Individual (including the merged fitness).

        What is the purpose of this method? When coevolution is done in combination with distributed evaluation, an Individual may be sent to multiple remote sites to be tested in different trials prior to having a completed fitness assessed. As those trials complete, we need a way to merge them together. By default this method simply merges the trial arrays (using fitness.merge(...)), and determines the "best" context, then copies the other Individual to me. But if you store additional trial results outside fitness---for example, if you keep around the best collaborators from coevolution, say---you may need a way to guarantee that this Individual reflects the most up to date information about recent trials arriving via the other Individual. In this case, override the method and perform merging by hand.