George Mason University

I am by no means an expert in this topic: as a result there are no doubt numerous errors in the text, ranging from simple typos to profound misunderstandings. I would appreciate feedback, corrections, and proposed additions: I will be gradually making improvements and fixes to the text.

**Introduction.**Synthesizer basics, usage environments, basic history.**Representations of sound.**Units of measure, issues in digitization of signals.**The Fourier Transform.**DFT and FFT, windowing.**Additive synthesis.****Modulation.**LFOs, envelopes, sequencers, arpeggiation, modulation matrices, MIDI modulation.**Subtractive synthesis.**Oscillators, antialiasing, wave shaping, wave folding, phase distortion, combination and amplification.**Digital filters.**Transfer functions, poles and zeros, magnitude and phase response, Laplace domain, Z domain and the Bilinear transform, second-order Butterworth filters, formants.**Frequency Modulation synthesis.**Phase modulation, sidebands, Bessel functions and reflection, operators and algorithms.**Sampling.**Pulse code modulation, wavetable synthesis, granular synthesis, resampling techniques, real-time interpolation.**Effects.**Delays, flangers, chorus, reverb, phasers, physical modeling synthesis.**Controllers.**MIDI protocols.