Journal Articles

  • Regulation of NMDA receptors by RoR2 signaling [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Wnt signaling has a well-established role as a regulator of nervous system development, but its role in the maintenance and regulation of established synapses in the mature brain remains poorly understood. At excitatory glutamatergic synapses, NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have a fundamental role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory;...
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  • Dido mutations trigger perinatal death [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Nearly all vertebrate cells have a single cilium protruding from their surface. This threadlike organelle, once considered vestigial, is now seen as a pivotal element for detection of extracellular signals that trigger crucial morphogenetic pathways. We recently proposed a role for Dido3, the main product of the death inducer-obliterator (dido)...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Molecular determinants of BK/{beta}1 modulation [Physiology]
    [Apr 2015]

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Arabidopsis cell division [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2015]

    The stereotypic pattern of cell shapes in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem (SAM) suggests that strict rules govern the placement of new walls during cell division. When a cell in the SAM divides, a new wall is built that connects existing walls and divides the cytoplasm of the daughter cells....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Functional characterization of INS in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2015]

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Tremendous achievements have been made in elucidating the tryptophan (Trp)-dependent auxin biosynthetic pathway; however, the genetic evidence, key components, and functions of the Trp-independent pathway remain elusive. Here we report that the Arabidopsis indole synthase mutant is defective...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Amygdala and theory-of-mind [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    [Apr 2015]

    The amygdala plays an integral role in human social cognition and behavior, with clear links to emotion recognition, trust judgments, anthropomorphization, and psychiatric disorders ranging from social phobia to autism. A central feature of human social cognition is a theory-of-mind (ToM) that enables the representation other people's mental states as...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Merz, What are the roles of V-ATPases in membrane fusion? [Correction]
    [Apr 2015]

    COMMENTARY Correction for “What are the roles of V-ATPases in membrane fusion?,” by Alexey J. Merz, which appeared in issue 1, January 6, 2015, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (112: 8–9; first published December 24, 2014; 10.1073/pnas.1422280112). The authors note that on page 8, middle column, first full paragraph,...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Gonsamo et al., Underestimated role of East Atlantic-West Russia pattern on Amazon vegetation productivity [Correction]
    [Apr 2015]

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Correction for “Underestimated role of East Atlantic-West Russia pattern on Amazon vegetation productivity,” by Alemu Gonsamo, Jingming M. Chen, and Petra D’Odorico, which appeared in issue 10, March 10, 2015, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (112:E1054–E1055; first published February 20, 2015; 10.1073/pnas.1420834112). The authors note that, due...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    [Apr 2015]

    Oceanic deoxygenation effects at the seafloor SEM images of fossilized mollusk shells showing predation traces from annelid worms (A), crustaceans (B), and gastropods (C). Oceanic deoxygenation is a likely consequence of global warming and may expand marine oxygen minimum zones, in turn potentially leading to reorganization of marine communities. Sarah...
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  • Optimizing dopamine neuron cell therapies [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    The field of neuronal transplantation for Parkinson’s disease has evolved through a remarkable convergence of ideas and techniques (1, 2). Over the last decade, attempts to replace missing dopamine neurons have evolved from an innovative and complex fetal dopamine cell transplantation method toward a potential scalable method that depends on...
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  • Continental-level biodiversity collapse [Environmental Sciences]
    [Apr 2015]

    Biodiversity loss is a global phenomenon (1), with Woinarski et al. (2) providing a sobering review of the demise of the Australian native terrestrial mammal fauna. The authors’ focus is on the loss of >10% of endemic terrestrial native mammal fauna since European settlement in 1788. The extent of mammal...
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  • Shapely DNA attracts the right partner [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    [Apr 2015]

    All levels of cell activity are coordinated directly or indirectly by transcription factors (TFs). In turn, the functioning of TFs relies on their ability to recognize and bind specific DNA sequences to regulate the expression of specific genes. How exactly this specificity is achieved is still not fully understood. Although...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Immune activation in human Ebola virus infection [Immunology and Inflammation]
    [Apr 2015]

    Ebola viruses (EBOV) are zoonotic infectious agents that are highly pathogenic in humans, causing severe hemorrhagic fever with fatality rates of ∼50–70% (1). This genus of negative single-stranded RNA viruses consists of five known species that are part of the Filoviridae family. The current EBOV outbreak in western Africa began...
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  • Renaissance of black phosphorus [Engineering]
    [Apr 2015]

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Loss of imprinting in fetal overgrowth [Agricultural Sciences]
    [Apr 2015]

    Embryos generated with the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can develop overgrowth syndromes. In ruminants, the condition is referred to as large offspring syndrome (LOS) and exhibits variable phenotypic abnormalities including overgrowth, enlarged tongue, and abdominal wall defects. These characteristics recapitulate those observed in the human loss-of-imprinting (LOI) overgrowth...
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  • Linked topological colloids [Applied Physical Sciences]
    [Apr 2015]

    Geometric shape and topology of constituent particles can alter many colloidal properties such as Brownian motion, self-assembly, and phase behavior. Thus far, only single-component building blocks of colloids with connected surfaces have been studied, although topological colloids, with constituent particles shaped as freestanding knots and handlebodies of different genus, have...
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  • {alpha}/{beta}-Peptides targeting diverse protein surfaces [Biochemistry]
    [Apr 2015]

    Peptide-based agents derived from well-defined scaffolds offer an alternative to antibodies for selective and high-affinity recognition of large and topologically complex protein surfaces. Here, we describe a strategy for designing oligomers containing both α- and β-amino acid residues (“α/β-peptides”) that mimic several peptides derived from the three-helix bundle “Z-domain” scaffold....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Autoinhibition of MDMX by p53 mimicry [Biochemistry]
    [Apr 2015]

    The p53 inhibitor MDMX is controlled by multiple stress signaling pathways. Using a proteolytic fragment release (PFR) assay, we detected an intramolecular interaction in MDMX that mechanistically mimics the interaction with p53, resulting in autoinhibition of MDMX. This mimicry is mediated by a hydrophobic peptide located in a long disordered...
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  • Identification of ubiquitin ligase substrates [Biochemistry]
    [Apr 2015]

    The identification of substrates for ubiquitin ligases has remained challenging, because most substrates are either immediately degraded by the proteasome or processed by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) to remove polyubiquitin. Although a methodology that enables detection of ubiquitinated proteins using ubiquitin Lys-ε-Gly-Gly (diGly) remnant antibodies and MS has been developed, it...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Phosphoinositides in phagosome-lysosome fusion [Biochemistry]
    [Apr 2015]

    Professional phagocytic cells ingest microbial intruders by engulfing them into phagosomes, which subsequently mature into microbicidal phagolysosomes. Phagosome maturation requires sequential fusion of the phagosome with early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Although various phosphoinositides (PIPs) have been detected on phagosomes, it remained unclear which PIPs actually govern phagosome maturation....
    Categories: Journal Articles
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