Journal Articles

  • Greece: Greek politics stall research reforms
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Greece: Greek politics stall research reforms

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518167a

    Author: Kevin Featherstone

    The ongoing damage to Greek scientific research is not solely due to austerity measures (Nature517, 127–128;10.1038/517127a2015). In my experience as a member of Greece's National Council for Research and Technology from 2010 to 2014, political manipulation

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Fisheries: Leave Brazil's Red List alone
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Fisheries: Leave Brazil's Red List alone

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518167b

    Author: Alexander C. Lees

    Brazil's government has agreed to review its updated Red List of the country's threatened marine species. This review represents a victory for lobbyists in the fishing industry. It is not based on new biological information.The list that was issued in December 2014 by Brazil's

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Excellence: EU research plan may widen gaps
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Excellence: EU research plan may widen gaps

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518167c

    Author: Pier Francesco Moretti

    The success of the European Union (EU) Research and Innovation programme depends on achieving critical mass among member states and optimizing each state's research contribution (see also M.ŻyliczNature517, 438;10.1038/517438a2015). This could be difficult, given the wide variation

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Biodiversity: Include freshwater species
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Biodiversity: Include freshwater species

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518167d

    Author: Sebastian Heilpern

    The omission of freshwater species from your biodiversity assessment (Nature516, 158–161;10.1038/516158a2014) reflects a more general bias towards terrestrial conservation, borne of insufficient knowledge about freshwater ecosystems. The Red List of the International Union for Conservation of

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Biodiversity: Sharks and rays in peril too
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Biodiversity: Sharks and rays in peril too

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518167e

    Authors: Peter M. Kyne, Nicholas J. Bax & Nicholas K. Dulvy

    Your status report on fauna biodiversity (Nature516, 158–161;10.1038/516158a2014) overlooks a group that is causing serious concern among conservationists — sharks, rays and chimaeras. These are particularly vulnerable to fishing and by-catch, in part because they mature

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Hubert Markl (1938–2015)
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Hubert Markl (1938–2015)

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518168a

    Author: Wilhelm Krull

    Biologist who steered German research organizations through reunification.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Social media: A network boost
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Social media: A network boost

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nj7538-263a

    Author: Monya Baker

    How scientists can use Twitter to expand their social contacts and find jobs.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Government funding: State contributions
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Government funding: State contributions

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nj7538-265a

    How individual US states stack up.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Immigration: Scientists gain access
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Immigration: Scientists gain access

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nj7538-265b

    Proposed legislation would loosen visa restrictions.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • The last one
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    The last one

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518268a

    Author: Iulia Georgescu

    What a waste.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Cosmology: The oldest cosmic light
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Cosmology: The oldest cosmic light

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518170a

    Authors: David Spergel & Brian Keating

    The cosmic microwave background is a faint glow of light left over from the Big Bang. It fills the entire sky and records the Universe's early history. Two independent experts outline what we know about this ancient light, both theoretically and observationally.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Star formation: Sibling rivalry begins at birth
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Star formation: Sibling rivalry begins at birth

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518173a

    Authors: Kaitlin M. Kratter

    High-resolution astronomical observations of a nearby molecular gas cloud have revealed a quadruplet of stars in the act of formation. The system is arguably the youngest multiple star system detected so far. See Letter p.213

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • 50 & 100 Years Ago
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    50 & 100 Years Ago

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518175a

    50 Years AgoThe Medical Research Council has set up a Brain Metabolism Research Unit in the Department of Pharmacology, University of Edinburgh Medical School. The Unit, which will be under the honorary direction of Prof. W. L. M. Perry, aims to undertake experimental and

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Geochemistry: When carbon escaped from the sea
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Geochemistry: When carbon escaped from the sea

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/518176a

    Authors: Katherine A. Allen

    A record of boron isotopes in fossils of microscopic plankton provides fresh evidence that some ocean regions were a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere when Earth warmed at the end of the last ice age. See Letter p.219

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • From quantum matter to high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    From quantum matter to high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14165

    Authors: B. Keimer, S. A. Kivelson, M. R. Norman, S. Uchida & J. Zaanen

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the copper oxides in 1986 triggered a huge amount of innovative scientific inquiry. In the almost three decades since, much has been learned about the novel forms of quantum matter that are exhibited in these strongly correlated electron systems. A qualitative understanding of the nature of the superconducting state itself has been achieved. However, unresolved issues include the astonishing complexity of the phase diagram, the unprecedented prominence of various forms of collective fluctuations, and the simplicity and insensitivity to material details of the ‘normal’ state at elevated temperatures.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14132

    Authors: Dmitry Shungin, Thomas W. Winkler, Damien C. Croteau-Chonka, Teresa Ferreira, Adam E. Locke, Reedik Mägi, Rona J. Strawbridge, Tune H. Pers, Krista Fischer, Anne E. Justice, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Joseph M. W. Wu, Martin L. Buchkovich, Nancy L. Heard-Costa, Tamara S. Roman, Alexander W. Drong, Ci Song, Stefan Gustafsson, Felix R. Day, Tonu Esko, Tove Fall, Zoltán Kutalik, Jian’an Luan, Joshua C. Randall, André Scherag, Sailaja Vedantam, Andrew R. Wood, Jin Chen, Rudolf Fehrmann, Juha Karjalainen, Bratati Kahali, Ching-Ti Liu, Ellen M. Schmidt, Devin Absher, Najaf Amin, Denise Anderson, Marian Beekman, Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham, Steven Buyske, Ayse Demirkan, Georg B. Ehret, Mary F. Feitosa, Anuj Goel, Anne U. Jackson, Toby Johnson, Marcus E. Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Cameron D. Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Marjolein J. Peters, Inga Prokopenko, Alena Stančáková, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Jana V. Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Eva Albrecht, Johan Ärnlöv, Gillian M. Arscott, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Claire Bellis, Amanda J. Bennett, Christian Berne, Matthias Blüher, Stefan Böhringer, Fabrice Bonnet, Yvonne Böttcher, Marcel Bruinenberg, Delia B. Carba, Ida H. Caspersen, Robert Clarke, E. Warwick Daw, Joris Deelen, Ewa Deelman, Graciela Delgado, Alex S. F. Doney, Niina Eklund, Michael R. Erdos, Karol Estrada, Elodie Eury, Nele Friedrich, Melissa E. Garcia, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Bruna Gigante, Alan S. Go, Alain Golay, Harald Grallert, Tanja B. Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Jagvir Grewal, Christopher J. Groves, Toomas Haller, Goran Hallmans, Catharina A. Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Kauko Heikkilä, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Quinta Helmer, Hans L. Hillege, Oddgeir Holmen, Steven C. Hunt, Aaron Isaacs, Till Ittermann, Alan L. James, Ingegerd Johansson, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Ioanna-Panagiota Kalafati, Leena Kinnunen, Wolfgang Koenig, Ishminder K. Kooner, Wolfgang Kratzer, Claudia Lamina, Karin Leander, Nanette R. Lee, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Mattias Lorentzon, François Mach, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Wendy L. McArdle, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Evelin Mihailov, Lili Milani, Rebecca Mills, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L. Monda, Simon P. Mooijaart, Thomas W. Mühleisen, Antonella Mulas, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Michael A. Nalls, Narisu Narisu, Nicola Glorioso, Ilja M. Nolte, Matthias Olden, Nigel W. Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Janina S. Ried, Neil R. Robertson, Lynda M. Rose, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Bengt Sennblad, Thomas Seufferlein, Colleen M. Sitlani, Albert Vernon Smith, Kathleen Stirrups, Heather M. Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A. Swertz, Amy J. Swift, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Bamidele O. Tayo, Barbara Thorand, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Andreas Tomaschitz, Chiara Troffa, Floor V. A. van Oort, Niek Verweij, Judith M. Vonk, Lindsay L. Waite, Roman Wennauer, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K. Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Qunyuan Zhang, Jing Hua Zhao, Eoin P. Brennan, Murim Choi, Per Eriksson, Lasse Folkersen, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Ali G. Gharavi, Åsa K. Hedman, Marie-France Hivert, Jinyan Huang, Stavroula Kanoni, Fredrik Karpe, Sarah Keildson, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Liming Liang, Richard P. Lifton, Baoshan Ma, Amy J. McKnight, Ruth McPherson, Andres Metspalu, Josine L. Min, Miriam F. Moffatt, Grant W. Montgomery, Joanne M. Murabito, George Nicholson, Dale R. Nyholt, Christian Olsson, John R. B. Perry, Eva Reinmaa, Rany M. Salem, Niina Sandholm, Eric E. Schadt, Robert A. Scott, Lisette Stolk, Edgar E. Vallejo, Harm-Jan Westra, Krina T. Zondervan, Philippe Amouyel, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J. L. Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N. Bergman, John Blangero, Morris J. Brown, Michel Burnier, Harry Campbell, Aravinda Chakravarti, Peter S. Chines, Simone Claudi-Boehm, Francis S. Collins, Dana C. Crawford, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Eco J. C. de Geus, Marcus Dörr, Raimund Erbel, Johan G. Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Nita G. Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Oscar H. Franco, Ron T. Gansevoort, Christian Gieger, Vilmundur Gudnason, Christopher A. Haiman, Tamara B. Harris, Andrew T. Hattersley, Markku Heliövaara, Andrew A. Hicks, Aroon D. Hingorani, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, Steve E. Humphries, Elina Hyppönen, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Berit Johansen, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti M. Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, Frank Kee, Sirkka M. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Jaspal S. Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T. Kraja, Meena Kumari, Kari Kuulasmaa, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A. Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Valeriya Lyssenko, Satu Männistö, André Marette, Tara C. Matise, Colin A. McKenzie, Barbara McKnight, Arthur W. Musk, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Andrew D. Morris, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J. Oldehinkel, Ken K. Ong, Lyle J. Palmer, Brenda W. Penninx, Annette Peters, Peter P. Pramstaller, Olli T. Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D. C. Rao, Treva K. Rice, Paul M. Ridker, Marylyn D. Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J. Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A. Sarzynski, Peter E. H. Schwarz, Alan R. Shuldiner, Jan A. Staessen, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ronald P. Stolk, Konstantin Strauch, Anke Tönjes, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Marie-Claude Vohl, Uwe Völker, Peter Vollenweider, James F. Wilson, Jacqueline C. Witteman, Linda S. Adair, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O. Boehm, Stefan R. Bornstein, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, Mark J. Caulfield, John C. Chambers, Daniel I. Chasman, Richard S. Cooper, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Philippe Froguel, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Anders Hamsten, Jennie Hui, Kristian Hveem, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Mika Kivimaki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Winfried März, Patricia B. Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A. Oostra, Colin N. A. Palmer, Nancy L. Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Fernando Rivadeneira, Timo E. Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, Juha Sinisalo, P. Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D. Spector, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G. Uitterlinden, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Giovanni Veronesi, Mark Walker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Hugh Watkins, H-Erich Wichmann, Goncalo R. Abecasis, Themistocles L. Assimes, Sonja I. Berndt, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B. Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Lude Franke, Timothy M. Frayling, Leif C. Groop, David J. Hunter, Robert C. Kaplan, Jeffrey R. O’Connell, Lu Qi, David Schlessinger, David P. Strachan, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Cristen J. Willer, Peter M. Visscher, Jian Yang, Joel N. Hirschhorn, M. Carola Zillikens, Mark I. McCarthy, Elizabeth K. Speliotes, Kari E. North, Caroline S. Fox, Inês Barroso, Paul W. Franks, Erik Ingelsson, Iris M. Heid, Ruth J. F. Loos, L. Adrienne Cupples, Andrew P. Morris, Cecilia M. Lindgren & Karen L Mohlke

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14177

    Authors: Adam E. Locke, Bratati Kahali, Sonja I. Berndt, Anne E. Justice, Tune H. Pers, Felix R. Day, Corey Powell, Sailaja Vedantam, Martin L. Buchkovich, Jian Yang, Damien C. Croteau-Chonka, Tonu Esko, Tove Fall, Teresa Ferreira, Stefan Gustafsson, Zoltán Kutalik, Jian’an Luan, Reedik Mägi, Joshua C. Randall, Thomas W. Winkler, Andrew R. Wood, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jessica D. Faul, Jennifer A. Smith, Jing Hua Zhao, Wei Zhao, Jin Chen, Rudolf Fehrmann, Åsa K. Hedman, Juha Karjalainen, Ellen M. Schmidt, Devin Absher, Najaf Amin, Denise Anderson, Marian Beekman, Jennifer L. Bolton, Jennifer L. Bragg-Gresham, Steven Buyske, Ayse Demirkan, Guohong Deng, Georg B. Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F. Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne U. Jackson, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E. Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Sarah E. Medland, Michael A. Nalls, Cameron D. Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Marjolein J. Peters, Inga Prokopenko, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J. Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W. van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V. Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Aaron Isaacs, Eva Albrecht, Johan Ärnlöv, Gillian M. Arscott, Antony P. Attwood, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Isabelita N. Bas, Claire Bellis, Amanda J. Bennett, Christian Berne, Roza Blagieva, Matthias Blüher, Stefan Böhringer, Lori L. Bonnycastle, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A. Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Ida H. Caspersen, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Robert Clarke, E. Warwick Daw, Anton J. M. de Craen, Graciela Delgado, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S. F. Doney, Niina Eklund, Karol Estrada, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Ross M. Fraser, Melissa E. Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Bruna Gigante, Alan S. Go, Alain Golay, Alison H. Goodall, Scott D. Gordon, Mathias Gorski, Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Harald Grallert, Tanja B. Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Christopher J. Groves, Gaëlle Gusto, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Goran Hallmans, Catharina A. Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L. Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Christian Hengstenberg, Oddgeir Holmen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Alan L. James, Janina M. Jeff, Åsa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Leena Kinnunen, Wolfgang Koenig, Markku Koskenvuo, Wolfgang Kratzer, Jaana Laitinen, Claudia Lamina, Karin Leander, Nanette R. Lee, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Ken Sin Lo, Stéphane Lobbens, Roberto Lorbeer, Yingchang Lu, François Mach, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Wendy L. McArdle, Stela McLachlan, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Evelin Mihailov, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L. Monda, Mario A. Morken, Antonella Mulas, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W. Musk, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Markus M. Nöthen, Ilja M. Nolte, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W. Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Rainer Rettig, Janina S. Ried, Stephan Ripke, Neil R. Robertson, Lynda M. Rose, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R. Schumacher, William R. Scott, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V. Stanton, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Kathleen Stirrups, Heather M. Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A. Swertz, Amy J. Swift, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Sian-Tsung Tan, Bamidele O. Tayo, Barbara Thorand, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P. Tyrer, Hae-Won Uh, Liesbeth Vandenput, Frank C. Verhulst, Sita H. Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M. Vonk, Lindsay L. Waite, Helen R. Warren, Dawn Waterworth, Michael N. Weedon, Lynne R. Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K. Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F. Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, Eoin P. Brennan, Murim Choi, Zari Dastani, Alexander W. Drong, Per Eriksson, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Jesper R. Gådin, Ali G. Gharavi, Michael E. Goddard, Robert E. Handsaker, Jinyan Huang, Fredrik Karpe, Sekar Kathiresan, Sarah Keildson, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Michiaki Kubo, Jong-Young Lee, Liming Liang, Richard P. Lifton, Baoshan Ma, Steven A. McCarroll, Amy J. McKnight, Josine L. Min, Miriam F. Moffatt, Grant W. Montgomery, Joanne M. Murabito, George Nicholson, Dale R. Nyholt, Yukinori Okada, John R. B. Perry, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Eva Reinmaa, Rany M. Salem, Niina Sandholm, Robert A. Scott, Lisette Stolk, Atsushi Takahashi, Toshihiro Tanaka, Ferdinand M. van’t Hooft, Anna A. E. Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Wei Zheng, Krina T. Zondervan, Andrew C. Heath, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J. L. Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N. Bergman, John Blangero, Pascal Bovet, Harry Campbell, Mark J. Caulfield, Giancarlo Cesana, Aravinda Chakravarti, Daniel I. Chasman, Peter S. Chines, Francis S. Collins, Dana C. Crawford, L. Adrienne Cupples, Daniele Cusi, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M. den Ruijter, Anna F. Dominiczak, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G. Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Stephan B. Felix, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G. Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Oscar H. Franco, Ron T. Gansevoort, Pablo V. Gejman, Christian Gieger, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Alistair S. Hall, Tamara B. Harris, Andrew T. Hattersley, Andrew A. Hicks, Lucia A. Hindorff, Aroon D. Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, G. Kees Hovingh, Steve E. Humphries, Steven C. Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Thomas Illig, Kevin B. Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Berit Johansen, Pekka Jousilahti, J. Wouter Jukema, Antti M. Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J. P. Kastelein, Sirkka M. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Paul Knekt, Jaspal S. Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T. Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A. Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Valeriya Lyssenko, Satu Männistö, André Marette, Tara C. Matise, Colin A. McKenzie, Barbara McKnight, Frans L. Moll, Andrew D. Morris, Andrew P. Morris, Jeffrey C. Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J. Oldehinkel, Ken K. Ong, Pamela A. F. Madden, Gerard Pasterkamp, John F. Peden, Annette Peters, Dirkje S. Postma, Peter P. Pramstaller, Jackie F. Price, Lu Qi, Olli T. Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D. C. Rao, Treva K. Rice, Paul M. Ridker, John D. Rioux, Marylyn D. Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J. Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A. Sarzynski, Heribert Schunkert, Peter E. H. Schwarz, Peter Sever, Alan R. Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Ronald P. Stolk, Konstantin Strauch, Anke Tönjes, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, Uwe Völker, Gérard Waeber, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline C. Witteman, M. Carola Zillikens, Linda S. Adair, Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W. Asselbergs, Themistocles L. Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O. Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Stefan R. Bornstein, Erwin P. Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C. Chambers, Stephen J. Chanock, Richard S. Cooper, Paul I. W. de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W. Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C. Groop, Christopher A. Haiman, Anders Hamsten, Jennie Hui, David J. Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Robert C. Kaplan, Mika Kivimaki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G. Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Andres Metspalu, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B. Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A. Oostra, Colin N. A. Palmer, Nancy L. Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Fernando Rivadeneira, Timo E. Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, Naveed Sattar, Eric E. Schadt, David Schlessinger, P. Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D. Spector, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G. Uitterlinden, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Mark Walker, Henri Wallaschofski, Nicholas J. Wareham, Hugh Watkins, David R. Weir, H-Erich Wichmann, James F. Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Ingrid B. Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Caroline S. Fox, Iris M. Heid, Jeffrey R. O’Connell, David P. Strachan, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Gonçalo R. Abecasis, Lude Franke, Timothy M. Frayling, Mark I. McCarthy, Peter M. Visscher, André Scherag, Cristen J. Willer, Michael Boehnke, Karen L. Mohlke, Cecilia M. Lindgren, Jacques S. Beckmann, Inês Barroso, Kari E. North, Erik Ingelsson, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Ruth J. F. Loos & Elizabeth K. Speliotes

    Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Shearing-induced asymmetry in entorhinal grid cells
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Shearing-induced asymmetry in entorhinal grid cells

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14151

    Authors: Tor Stensola, Hanne Stensola, May-Britt Moser & Edvard I. Moser

    Grid cells are neurons with periodic spatial receptive fields (grids) that tile two-dimensional space in a hexagonal pattern. To provide useful information about location, grids must be stably anchored to an external reference frame. The mechanisms underlying this anchoring process have remained elusive. Here we

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • The formation of a quadruple star system with wide separation
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    The formation of a quadruple star system with wide separation

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14166

    Authors: Jaime E. Pineda, Stella S. R. Offner, Richard J. Parker, Héctor G. Arce, Alyssa A. Goodman, Paola Caselli, Gary A. Fuller, Tyler L. Bourke & Stuartt A. Corder

    The initial multiplicity of stellar systems is highly uncertain. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the origin of binary and multiple star systems, including core fragmentation, disk fragmentation and stellar capture. Observations show that protostellar and pre-main-sequence multiplicity is higher than the multiplicity found in field stars, which suggests that dynamical interactions occur early, splitting up multiple systems and modifying the initial stellar separations. Without direct, high-resolution observations of forming systems, however, it is difficult to determine the true initial multiplicity and the dominant binary formation mechanism. Here we report observations of a wide-separation (greater than 1,000 astronomical units) quadruple system composed of a young protostar and three gravitationally bound dense gas condensations. These condensations are the result of fragmentation of dense gas filaments, and each condensation is expected to form a star on a timescale of 40,000 years. We determine that the closest pair will form a bound binary, while the quadruple stellar system itself is bound but unstable on timescales of 500,000 years (comparable to the lifetime of the embedded protostellar phase). These observations suggest that filament fragmentation on length scales of about 5,000 astronomical units offers a viable pathway to the formation of multiple systems.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Boron isotope evidence for oceanic carbon dioxide leakage during the last deglaciation
    [Feb 2015]

    Nature -

    Boron isotope evidence for oceanic carbon dioxide leakage during the last deglaciation

    Nature 518, 7538 (2015). doi:10.1038/nature14155

    Authors: M. A. Martínez-Botí, G. Marino, G. L. Foster, P. Ziveri, M. J. Henehan, J. W. B. Rae, P. G. Mortyn & D. Vance

    Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations over glacial–interglacial cycles remain a major challenge to our understanding of the carbon cycle and the climate system. Leading hypotheses put forward to explain glacial–interglacial atmospheric CO2 variations invoke changes in deep-ocean carbon storage, probably modulated by processes in the Southern Ocean, where much of the deep ocean is ventilated. A central aspect of such models is that, during deglaciations, an isolated glacial deep-ocean carbon reservoir is reconnected with the atmosphere, driving the atmospheric CO2 rise observed in ice-core records. However, direct documentation of changes in surface ocean carbon content and the associated transfer of carbon to the atmosphere during deglaciations has been hindered by the lack of proxy reconstructions that unambiguously reflect the oceanic carbonate system. Radiocarbon activity tracks changes in ocean ventilation, but not in ocean carbon content, whereas proxies that record increased deglacial upwelling do not constrain the proportion of upwelled carbon that is degassed relative to that which is taken up by the biological pump. Here we apply the boron isotope pH proxy in planktic foraminifera to two sediment cores from the sub-Antarctic Atlantic and the eastern equatorial Pacific as a more direct tracer of oceanic CO2 outgassing. We show that surface waters at both locations, which partly derive from deep water upwelled in the Southern Ocean, became a significant source of carbon to the atmosphere during the last deglaciation, when the concentration of atmospheric CO2 was increasing. This oceanic CO2 outgassing supports the view that the ventilation of a deep-ocean carbon reservoir in the Southern Ocean had a key role in the deglacial CO2 rise, although our results allow for the possibility that processes operating in other regions may also have been important for the glacial–interglacial ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon.

    Categories: Journal Articles
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