Journal Articles

  • Neural restoration via loop-based reinforcement [Neuroscience]
    [Feb 2015]

    High-frequency deep brain stimulation (HFS) is clinically recognized to treat parkinsonian movement disorders, but its mechanisms remain elusive. Current hypotheses suggest that the therapeutic merit of HFS stems from increasing the regularity of the firing patterns in the basal ganglia (BG). Although this is consistent with experiments in humans and...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Vessel normalization in tuberculosis granulomas [Engineering]
    [Feb 2015]

    Tuberculosis (TB) causes almost 2 million deaths annually, and an increasing number of patients are resistant to existing therapies. Patients who have TB require lengthy chemotherapy, possibly because of poor penetration of antibiotics into granulomas where the bacilli reside. Granulomas are morphologically similar to solid cancerous tumors in that they...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Multiplex genome safeguards in yeast [Genetics]
    [Feb 2015]

    Biocontainment may be required in a wide variety of situations such as work with pathogens, field release applications of engineered organisms, and protection of intellectual properties. Here, we describe the control of growth of the brewer’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using both transcriptional and recombinational “safeguard” control of essential gene function....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Reversion of exhausted CD8T cells by metformin [Immunology and Inflammation]
    [Feb 2015]

    Metformin, a prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that this mechanism may be immune-mediated. Metformin enabled normal but not T-cell–deficient SCID mice to reject solid tumors. In addition, it increased the number of...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Control of Igh locus V(D)J recombination [Immunology and Inflammation]
    [Feb 2015]

    Ig heavy chain (IgH) variable region exons are assembled from V, D, and J gene segments during early B-lymphocyte differentiation. A several megabase region at the “distal” end of the mouse IgH locus (Igh) contains hundreds of VHs, separated by an intergenic region from Igh Ds, JHs, and constant region...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Mitophagy confers resistance to Pseudomonas [Immunology and Inflammation]
    [Feb 2015]

    In the arms race of bacterial pathogenesis, bacteria produce an array of toxins and virulence factors that disrupt core host processes. Hosts mitigate the ensuing damage by responding with immune countermeasures. The iron-binding siderophore pyoverdin is a key virulence mediator of the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but its pathogenic mechanism...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Evolutionary game theory of cancer [Medical Sciences]
    [Feb 2015]

    The extensive intratumor heterogeneity revealed by sequencing cancer genomes is an essential determinant of tumor progression, diagnosis, and treatment. What maintains heterogeneity remains an open question because competition within a tumor leads to a strong selection for the fittest subclone. Cancer cells also cooperate by sharing molecules with paracrine effects,...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Suppress cancer relapse by stemness inhibition [Medical Sciences]
    [Feb 2015]

    Partial or even complete cancer regression can be achieved in some patients with current cancer treatments. However, such initial responses are almost always followed by relapse, with the recurrent cancer being resistant to further treatments. The discovery of therapeutic approaches that counteract relapse is, therefore, essential for advancing cancer medicine....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • GPR17 and food intake [Medical Sciences]
    [Feb 2015]

    G protein-coupled receptor 17 (GPR17) was recently reported to be a Foxo1 target in agouti-related peptide (AGRP) neurons. Intracerebroventricular injection of GPR17 agonists induced food intake, whereas administration of an antagonist to the receptor reduced feeding. These data lead to the conclusion that pharmacological modulation of GPR17 has therapeutic potential...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Flagella-independent motility in Salmonella [Microbiology]
    [Feb 2015]

    Flagella are multiprotein complexes necessary for swimming and swarming motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella-mediated motility is repressed by the PhoP/PhoQ regulatory system. We now report that Salmonella can move on 0.3% agarose media in a flagella-independent manner when experiencing the PhoP/PhoQ-inducing signal low Mg2+. This motility requires the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Diverse viral miRNAs inhibit interferon signaling [Microbiology]
    [Feb 2015]

    Diverse viruses encode regulatory RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). Despite much progress, the functions of the majority of viral miRNAs remain unknown. Most previous studies have used biochemical methods to uncover targets of viral miRNAs, but it is unclear what fraction of these targets is functionally important. Here, we apply an...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Peptide-governed cell differentiation in Nostoc [Microbiology]
    [Feb 2015]

    Nostoc punctiforme is a versatile cyanobacterium that can live either independently or in symbiosis with plants from distinct taxa. Chemical cues from plants and N. punctiforme were shown to stimulate or repress, respectively, the differentiation of infectious motile filaments known as hormogonia. We have used a polyketide synthase mutant that...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Sound representation in higher language areas [Neuroscience]
    [Feb 2015]

    How language is encoded by neural activity in the higher-level language areas of humans is still largely unknown. We investigated whether the electrophysiological activity of Broca’s area correlates with the sound of the utterances produced. During speech perception, the electric cortical activity of the auditory areas correlates with the sound...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • PTP{sigma} as a coreceptor for glypicans [Neuroscience]
    [Feb 2015]

    Leukocyte common antigen-related receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases—comprising LAR, PTPδ, and PTPσ—are synaptic adhesion molecules that organize synapse development. Here, we identify glypican 4 (GPC-4) as a ligand for PTPσ. GPC-4 showed strong (nanomolar) affinity and heparan sulfate (HS)-dependent interaction with the Ig domains of PTPσ. PTPσ bound only to proteolytically...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • BDNF enhances myocardial contractility/relaxation [Physiology]
    [Feb 2015]

    BDNF and its associated tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) nurture vessels and nerves serving the heart. However, the direct effect of BDNF/TrkB signaling on the myocardium is poorly understood. Here we report that cardiac-specific TrkB knockout mice (TrkB−/−) display impaired cardiac contraction and relaxation, showing that BDNF/TrkB signaling acts constitutively...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • FREE1 regulates protein trafficking and autophagy [Plant Biology]
    [Feb 2015]

    Protein turnover can be achieved via the lysosome/vacuole and the autophagic degradation pathways. Evidence has accumulated revealing that efficient autophagic degradation requires functional endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. However, the interplay between the ESCRT machinery and the autophagy regulator remains unclear. Here, we show that FYVE domain...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Context-dependent categorical perception [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    [Feb 2015]

    Some of the psychological abilities that underlie human speech are shared with other species. One hallmark of speech is that linguistic context affects both how speech sounds are categorized into phonemes, and how different versions of phonemes are produced. We here confirm earlier findings that swamp sparrows categorically perceive the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Chemodetection in fluctuating environments [Systems Biology]
    [Feb 2015]

    Variability in the chemical composition of the extracellular environment can significantly degrade the ability of cells to detect rare cognate ligands. Using concepts from statistical detection theory, we formalize the generic problem of detection of small concentrations of ligands in a fluctuating background of biochemically similar ligands binding to the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Li et al., Waking sleeping algal cells [Correction]
    [Feb 2015]

    COMMENTARY Correction for “Waking sleeping algal cells,” by Xiaobo Li, James G. Umen, and Martin C. Jonikas, which appeared in issue 44, November 4, 2014, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (111:15610–15611; first published October 23, 2014; 10.1073/pnas.1418295111). The authors note that on page 15610, center column, first full paragraph,...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Barcellos et al., Preparedness of Americans for the Affordable Care Act [Correction]
    [Feb 2015]

    ECONOMIC SCIENCES Correction for “Preparedness of Americans for the Affordable Care Act,” by Silvia Helena Barcellos, Amelie C. Wuppermann, Katherine Grace Carman, Sebastian Bauhoff, Daniel L. McFadden, Arie Kapteyn, Joachim K. Winter, and Dana Goldman, which appeared in issue 15, April 15, 2014, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (111:5497–5502;...
    Categories: Journal Articles
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