Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
  • Task-driven communications in cerebral cortex [Applied Mathematics]
    [Apr 2015]

    Neural correlations during a cognitive task are central to study brain information processing and computation. However, they have been poorly analyzed due to the difficulty of recording simultaneous single neurons during task performance. In the present work, we quantified neural directional correlations using spike trains that were simultaneously recorded in...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • ER{alpha} inhibitor activates the UPR and shrinks tumors [Medical Sciences]
    [Apr 2015]

    Recurrent estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast and ovarian cancers are often therapy resistant. Using screening and functional validation, we identified BHPI, a potent noncompetitive small molecule ERα biomodulator that selectively blocks proliferation of drug-resistant ERα-positive breast and ovarian cancer cells. In a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer, BHPI induced...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Androgen receptor splice variants in PCOS [Medical Sciences]
    [Apr 2015]

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female subfertility. The mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of PCOS remains to be illustrated. Here, we identify two alternative splice variants (ASVs) of the androgen receptor (AR), insertion and deletion isoforms, in granulosa...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Arbovirus genome recoding changes host preference [Microbiology]
    [Apr 2015]

    The protein synthesis machineries of two distinct phyla of the Animal kingdom, insects of Arthropoda and mammals of Chordata, have different preferences for how to best encode proteins. Nevertheless, arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) are capable of infecting both mammals and insects just like arboviruses that use insect vectors to infect plants....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Loose coupling in the bacterial flagellar motor [Microbiology]
    [Apr 2015]

    Physiological properties of the flagellar rotary motor have been taken to indicate a tightly coupled mechanism in which each revolution is driven by a fixed number of energizing ions. Measurements that would directly test the tight-coupling hypothesis have not been made. Energizing ions flow through membrane-bound complexes formed from the...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Hippocampus, memory, and scene construction [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    We evaluated two different perspectives about the function of the human hippocampus–one that emphasizes the importance of memory and another that emphasizes the importance of spatial processing and scene construction. We gave tests of boundary extension, scene construction, and memory to patients with lesions limited to the hippocampus or large...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Neural correlates of perceptual categorization [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Neurons of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) respond as functions of frequency or amplitude of a vibrotactile stimulus. However, whether S1 neurons encode both frequency and amplitude of the vibrotactile stimulus or whether each sensory feature is encoded by separate populations of S1 neurons is not known, To further address...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Kinetic dissection of recycling vesicle pool [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Vesicle recycling is pivotal for maintaining reliable synaptic signaling, but its basic properties remain poorly understood. Here, we developed an approach to quantitatively analyze the kinetics of vesicle recycling with exquisite signal and temporal resolution at the calyx of Held synapse. The combination of this electrophysiological approach with electron microscopy...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Fly sleep defined by calcium imaging [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom bodies change...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correlation coding of envelopes [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Understanding how the brain processes sensory information is often complicated by the fact that neurons exhibit trial-to-trial variability in their responses to stimuli. Indeed, the role of variability in sensory coding is still highly debated. Here, we examined how variability influences neural responses to naturalistic stimuli consisting of a fast...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Regulation of NMDA receptors by RoR2 signaling [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Wnt signaling has a well-established role as a regulator of nervous system development, but its role in the maintenance and regulation of established synapses in the mature brain remains poorly understood. At excitatory glutamatergic synapses, NMDA receptors (NMDARs) have a fundamental role in synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory;...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Dido mutations trigger perinatal death [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    Nearly all vertebrate cells have a single cilium protruding from their surface. This threadlike organelle, once considered vestigial, is now seen as a pivotal element for detection of extracellular signals that trigger crucial morphogenetic pathways. We recently proposed a role for Dido3, the main product of the death inducer-obliterator (dido)...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Molecular determinants of BK/{beta}1 modulation [Physiology]
    [Apr 2015]

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Arabidopsis cell division [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2015]

    The stereotypic pattern of cell shapes in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem (SAM) suggests that strict rules govern the placement of new walls during cell division. When a cell in the SAM divides, a new wall is built that connects existing walls and divides the cytoplasm of the daughter cells....
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Functional characterization of INS in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
    [Apr 2015]

    The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Tremendous achievements have been made in elucidating the tryptophan (Trp)-dependent auxin biosynthetic pathway; however, the genetic evidence, key components, and functions of the Trp-independent pathway remain elusive. Here we report that the Arabidopsis indole synthase mutant is defective...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Amygdala and theory-of-mind [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    [Apr 2015]

    The amygdala plays an integral role in human social cognition and behavior, with clear links to emotion recognition, trust judgments, anthropomorphization, and psychiatric disorders ranging from social phobia to autism. A central feature of human social cognition is a theory-of-mind (ToM) that enables the representation other people's mental states as...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Merz, What are the roles of V-ATPases in membrane fusion? [Correction]
    [Apr 2015]

    COMMENTARY Correction for “What are the roles of V-ATPases in membrane fusion?,” by Alexey J. Merz, which appeared in issue 1, January 6, 2015, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (112: 8–9; first published December 24, 2014; 10.1073/pnas.1422280112). The authors note that on page 8, middle column, first full paragraph,...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Correction for Gonsamo et al., Underestimated role of East Atlantic-West Russia pattern on Amazon vegetation productivity [Correction]
    [Apr 2015]

    ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Correction for “Underestimated role of East Atlantic-West Russia pattern on Amazon vegetation productivity,” by Alemu Gonsamo, Jingming M. Chen, and Petra D’Odorico, which appeared in issue 10, March 10, 2015, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (112:E1054–E1055; first published February 20, 2015; 10.1073/pnas.1420834112). The authors note that, due...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
    [Apr 2015]

    Oceanic deoxygenation effects at the seafloor SEM images of fossilized mollusk shells showing predation traces from annelid worms (A), crustaceans (B), and gastropods (C). Oceanic deoxygenation is a likely consequence of global warming and may expand marine oxygen minimum zones, in turn potentially leading to reorganization of marine communities. Sarah...
    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Optimizing dopamine neuron cell therapies [Neuroscience]
    [Apr 2015]

    The field of neuronal transplantation for Parkinson’s disease has evolved through a remarkable convergence of ideas and techniques (1, 2). Over the last decade, attempts to replace missing dopamine neurons have evolved from an innovative and complex fetal dopamine cell transplantation method toward a potential scalable method that depends on...
    Categories: Journal Articles