Nucleic Acids Research

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  • A positioned +1 nucleosome enhances promoter-proximal pausing
    [Mar 2015]

    Chromatin distribution is not uniform along the human genome. In most genes there is a promoter-associated nucleosome free region (NFR) followed by an array of nucleosomes towards the gene body in which the first (+1) nucleosome is strongly positioned. The function of this characteristic chromatin distribution in transcription is not fully understood. Here we show in vivo that the +1 nucleosome plays a role in modulating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) promoter-proximal pausing. When a +1 nucleosome is strongly positioned, elongating RNAPII has a tendency to stall at the promoter-proximal region, recruits more negative elongation factor (NELF) and produces less mRNA. The nucleosome-induced pause favors pre-mRNA quality control by promoting the addition of the cap to the nascent RNA. Moreover, the uncapped RNAs produced in the absence of a positioned nucleosome are degraded by the 5'-3' exonuclease XRN2. Interestingly, reducing the levels of the chromatin remodeler ISWI factor SNF2H decreases +1 nucleosome positioning and increases RNAPII pause release. This work demonstrates a function for +1 nucleosome in regulation of transcription elongation, pre-mRNA processing and gene expression.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • The architecture of ArgR-DNA complexes at the genome-scale in Escherichia coli
    [Mar 2015]

    DNA-binding motifs that are recognized by transcription factors (TFs) have been well studied; however, challenges remain in determining the in vivo architecture of TF-DNA complexes on a genome-scale. Here, we determined the in vivo architecture of Escherichia coli arginine repressor (ArgR)-DNA complexes using high-throughput sequencing of exonuclease-treated chromatin-immunoprecipitated DNA (ChIP-exo). The ChIP-exo has a unique peak-pair pattern indicating 5' and 3' ends of ArgR-binding region. We identified 62 ArgR-binding loci, which were classified into three groups, comprising single, double and triple peak-pairs. Each peak-pair has a unique 93 base pair (bp)-long (±2 bp) ArgR-binding sequence containing two ARG boxes (39 bp) and residual sequences. Moreover, the three ArgR-binding modes defined by the position of the two ARG boxes indicate that DNA bends centered between the pair of ARG boxes facilitate the non-specific contacts between ArgR subunits and the residual sequences. Additionally, our approach may also reveal other fundamental structural features of TF-DNA interactions that have implications for studying genome-scale transcriptional regulatory networks.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • How 'arm-twisting' by the inducer triggers activation of the MalT transcription factor, a typical signal transduction ATPase with numerous domains (STAND)
    [Mar 2015]

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) get activated through inducer-dependent assembly into multimeric platforms. This switch relies on the conversion of their nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) from a closed, ADP-bound form to an open, ATP-bound form. The NOD closed form is stabilized by contacts with the arm, a domain that connects the NOD to the inducer-binding domain called the sensor. How the inducer triggers NOD opening remains unclear. Here, I pinpointed the NOD-arm interface of the MalT STAND transcription factor, and I generated a MalT variant in which this interface can be covalently locked on demand, thereby trapping the NOD in the closed state. By characterizing this locked variant, I found that the inducer is recognized in two steps: it first binds to the sole sensor with low affinity, which then triggers the recruitment of the arm to form a high-affinity arm-sensor inducer-binding site. Strikingly, this high-affinity binding step was incompatible with arm-NOD contacts maintaining the NOD closed. Through this toggling between two mutually exclusive states reminiscent of a single-pole double-throw switch, the arm couples inducer binding to NOD opening, shown here to precede nucleotide exchange. This scenario likely holds for other STANDs like mammalian NLR innate immunity receptors.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • An intrinsically disordered region of methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) recruits the histone deacetylase core of the NuRD complex
    [Mar 2015]

    The MBD2-NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase) complex is an epigenetic reader of DNA methylation that regulates genes involved in normal development and neoplastic diseases. To delineate the architecture and functional interactions of the MBD2-NuRD complex, we previously solved the structures of MBD2 bound to methylated DNA and a coiled-coil interaction between MBD2 and p66α that recruits the CHD4 nucleosome remodeling protein to the complex. The work presented here identifies novel structural and functional features of a previously uncharacterized domain of MBD2 (MBD2IDR). Biophysical analyses show that the MBD2IDR is an intrinsically disordered region (IDR). However, despite this inherent disorder, MBD2IDR increases the overall binding affinity of MBD2 for methylated DNA. MBD2IDR also recruits the histone deacetylase core components (RbAp48, HDAC2 and MTA2) of NuRD through a critical contact region requiring two contiguous amino acid residues, Arg286 and Leu287. Mutating these residues abrogates interaction of MBD2 with the histone deacetylase core and impairs the ability of MBD2 to repress the methylated tumor suppressor gene PRSS8 in MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. These findings expand our knowledge of the multi-dimensional interactions of the MBD2-NuRD complex that govern its function.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Insulin-response epigenetic activation of Egr-1 and JunB genes at the nuclear periphery by A-type lamin-associated pY19-Caveolin-2 in the inner nuclear membrane
    [Mar 2015]

    Insulin controls transcription to sustain its physiologic effects for the organism to adapt to environmental changes added to genetic predisposition. Nevertheless, insulin-induced transcriptional regulation by epigenetic factors and in defined nuclear territory remains elusive. Here we show that inner nuclear membrane (INM)-integrated caveolin-2 (Cav-2) regulates insulin-response epigenetic activation of Egr-1 and JunB genes at the nuclear periphery. INM-targeted pY19-Cav-2 in response to insulin associates specifically with the A-type lamin, disengages the repressed Egr-1 and JunB promoters from lamin A/C through disassembly of H3K9me3, and facilitates assembly of H3K9ac, H3K18ac and H3K27ac by recruitment of GCN5 and p300 and the subsequent enrichment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on the promoters at the nuclear periphery. Our findings show that Cav-2 is an epigenetic regulator of histone H3 modifications, and provide novel mechanisms of insulin-response epigenetic activation at the nuclear periphery.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Genome-wide CIITA-binding profile identifies sequence preferences that dictate function versus recruitment
    [Mar 2015]

    The class II transactivator (CIITA) is essential for the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) genes; however, the role of CIITA in gene regulation outside of MHC-II biology is not fully understood. To comprehensively map CIITA-bound loci, ChIP-seq was performed in the human B lymphoblastoma cell line Raji. CIITA bound 480 sites, and was significantly enriched at active promoters and enhancers. The complexity of CIITA transcriptional regulation of target genes was analyzed using a combination of CIITA-null cells, including a novel cell line created using CRISPR/Cas9 tools. MHC-II genes and a few novel genes were regulated by CIITA; however, most other genes demonstrated either diminished or no changes in the absence of CIITA. Nearly all CIITA-bound sites were within regions containing accessible chromatin, and CIITA's presence at these sites was associated with increased histone H3K27 acetylation, suggesting that CIITA's role at these non-regulated loci may be to poise the region for subsequent regulation. Computational genome-wide modeling of the CIITA bound XY box motifs provided constraints for sequences associated with CIITA-mediated gene regulation versus binding. These data therefore define the CIITA regulome in B cells and establish sequence specificities that predict activity for an essential regulator of the adaptive immune response.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • A novel role for the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP14/ARTD8 in promoting homologous recombination and protecting against replication stress
    [Mar 2015]

    Genomic instability, a major hallmark of cancer cells, is caused by incorrect or ineffective DNA repair. Many DNA repair mechanisms cooperate in cells to fight DNA damage, and are generally regulated by post-translational modification of key factors. Poly-ADP-ribosylation, catalyzed by PARP1, is a post-translational modification playing a prominent role in DNA repair, but much less is known about mono-ADP-ribosylation. Here we report that mono-ADP-ribosylation plays an important role in homologous recombination DNA repair, a mechanism essential for replication fork stability and double strand break repair. We show that the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP14 interacts with the DNA replication machinery component PCNA and promotes replication of DNA lesions and common fragile sites. PARP14 depletion results in reduced homologous recombination, persistent RAD51 foci, hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents and accumulation of DNA strand breaks. Our work uncovered PARP14 as a novel factor required for mitigating replication stress and promoting genomic stability.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Involvement of ATM in homologous recombination after end resection and RAD51 nucleofilament formation
    [Mar 2015]

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is needed for the initiation of the double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR). ATM triggers DSB end resection by stimulating the nucleolytic activity of CtIP and MRE11 to generate 3'-ssDNA overhangs, followed by RPA loading and RAD51 nucleofilament formation. Here we show for the first time that ATM is also needed for later steps in HR after RAD51 nucleofilament formation. Inhibition of ATM after completion of end resection did not affect RAD51 nucleofilament formation, but resulted in HR deficiency as evidenced by (i) an increase in the number of residual RAD51/H2AX foci in both S and G2 cells, (ii) the decrease in HR efficiency as detected by HR repair substrate (pGC), (iii) a reduced SCE rate and (iv) the radiosensitization of cells by PARP inhibition. This newly described role for ATM was found to be dispensable in heterochromatin-associated DSB repair, as KAP1-depletion did not alleviate the HR-deficiency when ATM was inhibited after end resection. Moreover, we demonstrated that ATR can partly compensate for the deficiency in early, but not in later, steps of HR upon ATM inhibition. Taken together, we describe here for the first time that ATM is needed not only for the initiation but also for the completion of HR.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • An LRP16-containing preassembly complex contributes to NF-{kappa}B activation induced by DNA double-strand breaks
    [Mar 2015]

    The activation of NF-B has emerged as an important mechanism for the modulation of the response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The concomitant SUMOylation and phosphorylation of IKK by PIASy and ATM, respectively, is a key event in this mechanism. However, the mechanism through which mammalian cells are able to accomplish these IKK modifications in a timely and lesion-specific manner remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that LRP16 constitutively interacts with PARP1 and IKK. This interaction is essential for efficient interactions among PARP1, IKK, and PIASy, the modifications of IKK, and the activation of NF-B following DSB induction. The regulation of LRP16 in NF-B activation is dependent on the DSB-specific sensors Ku70/Ku80. These data strongly suggest that LRP16, through its constitutive interactions with PARP1 and IKK, functions to facilitate the lesion-specific recruitment of PARP1 and IKK and, ultimately, the concomitant recruitment of PIASy to IKK in response to DSB damage. Therefore, the study has provided important new mechanistic insights concerning DSB-induced NF-B activation.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • RAD54 family translocases counter genotoxic effects of RAD51 in human tumor cells
    [Mar 2015]

    The RAD54 family DNA translocases have several biochemical activities. One activity, demonstrated previously for the budding yeast translocases, is ATPase-dependent disruption of RAD51-dsDNA binding. This activity is thought to promote dissociation of RAD51 from heteroduplex DNA following strand exchange during homologous recombination. In addition, previous experiments in budding yeast have shown that the same activity of Rad54 removes Rad51 from undamaged sites on chromosomes; mutants lacking Rad54 accumulate nonrepair-associated complexes that can block growth and lead to chromosome loss. Here, we show that human RAD54 also promotes the dissociation of RAD51 from dsDNA and not ssDNA. We also show that translocase depletion in tumor cell lines leads to the accumulation of RAD51 on chromosomes, forming complexes that are not associated with markers of DNA damage. We further show that combined depletion of RAD54L and RAD54B and/or artificial induction of RAD51 overexpression blocks replication and promotes chromosome segregation defects. These results support a model in which RAD54L and RAD54B counteract genome-destabilizing effects of direct binding of RAD51 to dsDNA in human tumor cells. Thus, in addition to having genome-stabilizing DNA repair activity, human RAD51 has genome-destabilizing activity when expressed at high levels, as is the case in many human tumors.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Effects of DNA3'pp5'G capping on 3' end repair reactions and of an embedded pyrophosphate-linked guanylate on ribonucleotide surveillance
    [Mar 2015]

    When DNA breakage results in a 3'-PO4 terminus, the end is considered ‘dirty’ because it cannot prime repair synthesis by DNA polymerases or sealing by classic DNA ligases. The noncanonical ligase RtcB can guanylylate the DNA 3'-PO4 to form a DNA3'pp5'GOH cap. Here we show that DNA capping precludes end joining by classic ATP-dependent and NAD+-dependent DNA ligases, prevents template-independent nucleotide addition by mammalian terminal transferase, blocks exonucleolytic proofreading by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II and inhibits proofreading by E. coli DNA polymerase III, while permitting templated DNA synthesis from the cap guanosine 3'-OH primer by E. coli DNA polymerase II (B family) and E. coli DNA polymerase III (C family). Human DNA polymerase β (X family) extends the cap primer predominantly by a single templated addition step. Cap-primed synthesis by templated polymerases embeds a pyrophosphate-linked ribonucleotide in DNA. We find that the embedded ppG is refractory to surveillance and incision by RNase H2.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • U1 snRNP is mislocalized in ALS patient fibroblasts bearing NLS mutations in FUS and is required for motor neuron outgrowth in zebrafish
    [Mar 2015]

    Mutations in FUS cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the molecular pathways leading to neurodegeneration remain obscure. We previously found that U1 snRNP is the most abundant FUS interactor. Here, we report that components of the U1 snRNP core particle (Sm proteins and U1 snRNA), but not the mature U1 snRNP-specific proteins (U1-70K, U1A and U1C), co-mislocalize with FUS to the cytoplasm in ALS patient fibroblasts harboring mutations in the FUS nuclear localization signal (NLS). Similar results were obtained in HeLa cells expressing the ALS-causing FUS R495X NLS mutation, and mislocalization of Sm proteins is RRM-dependent. Moreover, as observed with FUS, knockdown of any of the U1 snRNP-specific proteins results in a dramatic loss of SMN-containing Gems. Significantly, knockdown of U1 snRNP in zebrafish results in motor axon truncations, a phenotype also observed with FUS, SMN and TDP-43 knockdowns. Our observations linking U1 snRNP to ALS patient cells with FUS mutations, SMN-containing Gems, and motor neurons indicate that U1 snRNP is a component of a molecular pathway associated with motor neuron disease. Linking an essential canonical splicing factor (U1 snRNP) to this pathway provides strong new evidence that splicing defects may be involved in pathogenesis and that this pathway is a potential therapeutic target.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Hypoxia-induced gene expression results from selective mRNA partitioning to the endoplasmic reticulum
    [Mar 2015]

    Protein synthesis is a primary energy-consuming process in the cell. Therefore, under hypoxic conditions, rapid inhibition of global mRNA translation represents a major protective strategy to maintain energy metabolism. How some mRNAs, especially those that encode crucial survival factors, continue to be efficiently translated in hypoxia is not completely understood. By comparing specific transcript levels in ribonucleoprotein complexes, cytoplasmic polysomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes, we show that the synthesis of proteins encoded by hypoxia marker genes is favoured at the ER in hypoxia. Gene expression profiling revealed that transcripts particularly increased by the HIF-1 transcription factor network show hypoxia-induced enrichment at the ER. We found that mRNAs favourably translated at the ER have higher conservation scores for both the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) and contain less upstream initiation codons (uAUGs), indicating the significance of these sequence elements for sustained mRNA translation under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we found enrichment of specific cis-elements in mRNA 5'- as well as 3'-UTRs that mediate transcript localization to the ER in hypoxia. We conclude that transcriptome partitioning between the cytoplasm and the ER permits selective mRNA translation under conditions of energy shortage.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Single molecule TPM analysis of the catalytic pentad mutants of Cre and Flp site-specific recombinases: contributions of the pentad residues to the pre-chemical steps of recombination
    [Mar 2015]

    Cre and Flp site-specific recombinase variants harboring point mutations at their conserved catalytic pentad positions were characterized using single molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) analysis. The findings reveal contributions of these amino acids to the pre-chemical steps of recombination. They suggest functional differences between positionally conserved residues in how they influence recombinase-target site association and formation of ‘non-productive’, ‘pre-synaptic’ and ‘synaptic’ complexes. The most striking difference between the two systems is noted for the single conserved lysine. The pentad residues in Cre enhance commitment to recombination by kinetically favoring the formation of pre-synaptic complexes. These residues in Flp serve a similar function by promoting Flp binding to target sites, reducing non-productive binding and/or enhancing the rate of assembly of synaptic complexes. Kinetic comparisons between Cre and Flp, and between their derivatives lacking the tyrosine nucleophile, are consistent with a stronger commitment to recombination in the Flp system. The effect of target site orientation (head-to-head or head-to-tail) on the TPM behavior of synapsed DNA molecules supports the selection of anti-parallel target site alignment prior to the chemical steps. The integrity of the synapse, whose establishment/stability is fostered by strand cleavage in the case of Flp but not Cre, appears to be compromised by the pentad mutations.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Silent mutations at codons 65 and 66 in reverse transcriptase alleviate indel formation and restore fitness in subtype B HIV-1 containing D67N and K70R drug resistance mutations
    [Mar 2015]

    Resistance to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-1-infected individuals is typically due to nonsynonymous mutations that change the protein sequence; however, the selection of synonymous or ‘silent’ mutations in the HIV-1 genome with cART has been reported. These silent K65K and K66K mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) occur in over 35% of drug-experienced individuals and are highly associated with the thymidine analog mutations D67N and K70R, which confer decreased susceptibility to most nucleoside and nucleotide RT inhibitors. However, the basis for selection of these silent mutations under selective drug pressure is unknown. Using Illumina next-generation sequencing, we demonstrate that the D67N/K70R substitutions in HIV-1 RT increase indel frequency by 100-fold at RT codons 65–67, consequently impairing viral fitness. Introduction of either K65K or K66K into HIV-1 containing D67N/K70R reversed the error-prone DNA synthesis at codons 65–67 in RT and improved viral replication fitness, but did not impact RT inhibitor drug susceptibility. These data provide new mechanistic insights into the role of silent mutations selected during antiretroviral therapy and have broader implications for the relevance of silent mutations in the evolution and fitness of RNA viruses.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • CarD stabilizes mycobacterial open complexes via a two-tiered kinetic mechanism
    [Mar 2015]

    CarD is an essential and global transcriptional regulator in mycobacteria. While its biological role is unclear, CarD functions by interacting directly with RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme promoter complexes. Here, using a fluorescent reporter of open complex, we quantitate RPo formation in real time and show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD has a dramatic effect on the energetics of RNAP bound complexes on the M. tuberculosis rrnAP3 ribosomal RNA promoter. The data reveal that Mycobacterium bovis RNAP exhibits an unstable RPo that is stabilized by CarD and suggest that CarD uses a two-tiered, concentration-dependent mechanism by associating with open and closed complexes with different affinities. Specifically, the kinetics of open-complex formation can be explained by a model where, at saturating concentrations of CarD, the rate of bubble collapse is slowed and the rate of opening is accelerated. The kinetics and open-complex stabilities of CarD mutants further clarify the roles played by the key residues W85, K90 and R25 previously shown to affect CarD-dependent gene regulation in vivo. In contrast to M. bovis RNAP, Escherichia coli RNAP efficiently forms RPo on rrnAP3, suggesting an important difference between the polymerases themselves and highlighting how transcriptional machinery can vary across bacterial genera.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Brr2 plays a role in spliceosomal activation in addition to U4/U6 unwinding
    [Mar 2015]

    Brr2 is a DExD/H-box RNA helicase that is responsible for U4/U6 unwinding, a critical step in spliceosomal activation. Brr2 is a large protein (~250 kD) that consists of an N-terminal domain (~500 residues) with unknown function and two Hel308-like modules that are responsible for RNA unwinding. Here we demonstrate that removal of the entire N-terminal domain is lethal to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and deletion of the N-terminal 120 residues leads to splicing defects and severely impaired growth. This N-terminal truncation does not significantly affect Brr2's helicase activity. Brr2-120 can be successfully assembled into the tri-snRNP (albeit at a lower level than the WT Brr2) and the spliceosomal B complex. However, the truncation significantly impairs spliceosomal activation, leading to a dramatic reduction of U5, U6 snRNAs and accumulation of U1 snRNA in the Bact complex. The N-terminal domain of Brr2 does not seem to be directly involved in regulating U1/5'ss unwinding. Instead, the N-terminal domain seems to be critical for retaining U5 and U6 snRNPs during/after spliceosomal activation through its interaction with snRNAs and possibly other spliceosomal proteins, revealing a new role of Brr2 in spliceosomal activation in addition to U4/U6 unwinding.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • New insights into stop codon recognition by eRF1
    [Mar 2015]

    In eukaryotes, translation termination is performed by eRF1, which recognizes stop codons via its N-terminal domain. Many previous studies based on point mutagenesis, cross-linking experiments or eRF1 chimeras have investigated the mechanism by which the stop signal is decoded by eRF1. Conserved motifs, such as GTS and YxCxxxF, were found to be important for termination efficiency, but the recognition mechanism remains unclear. We characterized a region of the eRF1 N-terminal domain, the P1 pocket, that we had previously shown to be involved in termination efficiency. We performed alanine scanning mutagenesis of this region, and we quantified in vivo readthrough efficiency for each alanine mutant. We identified two residues, arginine 65 and lysine 109, as critical for recognition of the three stop codons. We also demonstrated a role for the serine 33 and serine 70 residues in UGA decoding in vivo. NMR analysis of the alanine mutants revealed that the correct conformation of this region was controlled by the YxCxxxF motif. By combining our genetic data with a structural analysis of eRF1 mutants, we were able to formulate a new model in which the stop codon interacts with eRF1 through the P1 pocket.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Cwc21p promotes the second step conformation of the spliceosome and modulates 3' splice site selection
    [Mar 2015]

    Pre-mRNA splicing involves two transesterification steps catalyzed by the spliceosome. How RNA substrates are positioned in each step and the molecular rearrangements involved, remain obscure. Here, we show that mutations in PRP16, PRP8, SNU114 and the U5 snRNA that affect this process interact genetically with CWC21, that encodes the yeast orthologue of the human SR protein, SRm300/SRRM2. Our microarray analysis shows changes in 3' splice site selection at elevated temperature in a subset of introns in cwc21 cells. Considering all the available data, we propose a role for Cwc21p positioning the 3' splice site at the transition to the second step conformation of the spliceosome, mediated through its interactions with the U5 snRNP. This suggests a mechanism whereby SRm300/SRRM2, might influence splice site selection in human cells.

    Categories: Journal Articles
  • Short antisense-locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) correct alternative splicing abnormalities in myotonic dystrophy
    [Mar 2015]

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disorder caused by expansion of CTG triplet repeats in 3'-untranslated region of DMPK gene. The pathomechanism of DM1 is driven by accumulation of toxic transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats (CUGexp) in nuclear foci which sequester several factors regulating RNA metabolism, such as Muscleblind-like proteins (MBNLs). In this work, we utilized very short chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides composed exclusively of locked nucleic acids (all-LNAs) complementary to CUG repeats, as potential therapeutic agents against DM1. Our in vitro data demonstrated that very short, 8- or 10-unit all-LNAs effectively bound the CUG repeat RNA and prevented the formation of CUGexp/MBNL complexes. In proliferating DM1 cells as well as in skeletal muscles of DM1 mouse model the all-LNAs induced the reduction of the number and size of CUGexp foci and corrected MBNL-sensitive alternative splicing defects with high efficacy and specificity. The all-LNAs had low impact on the cellular level of CUGexp-containing transcripts and did not affect the expression of other transcripts with short CUG repeats. Our data strongly indicate that short all-LNAs complementary to CUG repeats are a promising therapeutic tool against DM1.

    Categories: Journal Articles