•   When: Thursday, January 24, 2019 from 01:30 PM to 03:30 PM
  •   Speakers: Chaitanya Yavvari
  •   Location: ENGR 4201
  •   Export to iCal

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that safety applications enabled by V2V (vehicle to vehicle) and V2I (vehicle to infrastructure) communications could eliminate or mitigate the severity of up to 80 percent of non-impaired crashes, including crashes at intersections or while changing lanes and announced that crash reduction is the primary goal of V2X (vehicle to everything). Prior to the introduction of V2X, mechatronics in road-going vehicles have been improving over the years with primary components such as engines, powertrains, transmission, tires, brakes and active safety devices such as anti-lock braking system (ABS), electronic stability control (ESC), Traction Control (TC) and automated distance maintenance system (ADMS). These systems have been advancing the safety of vehicles by using sensors that obtain runtime parameters such as the wheel slip ratios, slip angles, yaw, tilt, and roll in addition to speed and acceleration that provide essential parameters to measure the stability of a vehicle. When vehicles are connected, data obtainable from stability maintenance subsystems can enable more safety applications.

The first part of this dissertation examines how current standardized Basic Safety Message (BSM) messages can be augmented with the state variables known to the subsystems to provide an early decision-making input for the receivers to plan their respective trajectories with increased stability and safety.  Additionally, three-dimensional geometric features of roads such as vertical and horizontal profiles, super-elevation and grade which can be sourced from designs and surveys can also be used with the transmitted vehicular dynamics based parameters. The second part of this work presented methods to integrate these features into a coarse mesh representation in Open Curved Regular Grid (OpenCRG) and then generate fine grain road surface with C2 continuity for evaluating tire-terrain interaction parameters on demand.
 The utility of proposed BSM augmentation and terrain 3D characterization is shown using a high fidelity physics-based simulation framework for a subset of NHTSA’s pre-crash scenarios.

Safety afforded by deploying connected-vehicles also requires secure communication. Security Credential Management System (SCMS) is a public key infrastructure system designed explicitly for vehicles proposed for providing secure communications in V2V. SCMS provides mechanisms for validation, authentication of messages. While it guarantees authentication, which acts as a measure against misuse of credentials (called global misbehavior detection), it does not address deliberate incorrect transmission done with valid credentials. To this end, I present an approach for local misbehavior detection by leveraging static vehicle configuration information such as engine power, acceleration capabilities, braking, moments of inertia, etc. for checking the plausibility of BSM content at a receiving vehicle. This ability will enhance the security provided by the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) of DSRC with local misbehavior detection. The overhead of security should not affect the real-time requirements of safety applications. Under heavy traffic such as in slow-moving multi-lane highways, a vehicle needs to prioritize the transmissions of critical senders from less relevant messages. The last part of this work presents approaches for minimizing BSM message verification at high traffic loads by filtering the messages based on relevance for the onboard safety application.

Posted 4 weeks ago